derivatives of those used to describe tardyons and luxons. In this way, superluminal motion has been defined with respect to subluminal conditions leading to complex equations of motion and coordinate transformations (Puscher, 1980; Murad, 1997; Jones, 1982) Although correct, these adaptations may not be entirely representative of how the superluminal realm, or spacetime in general, should be perceived. From the present understanding of the cosmos and observed natural phenomena, our perception of the universe includes all subluminal and luminal events (including the behavior of light itself), while the hypothetical superluminal realm exists only in a mathematical sense lacking the experimental proof for its existence. The mathematical representations predicting the behavior of normally sublight particles traveling faster than light (FTL) introduce relativistic effects and causality from the sublight point of view, which yield insurmountable issues for most FTL travel concepts. This paper, however, will discuss a novel relationship between the speed of light, matter, energy, and time that identifies three separate continua within the universe such that FTL travel without relativistic or causal effects could be made possible.
RELATIVISTIC SYMMETRY AND THE TRI-SPACE UNIVERSE The formulation by A. Einstein on special relativity in conjunction with Lorentz transformations has become the established criteria for evaluating motion at sublight and near light speeds. In summary, these principles state that as a particle approaches c , its relativistic mass, m , appears to increase, its relativistic length, l , appears to shorten, while time, t , begins to slow down, all with respect to an observer in a different reference frame. These processes are known as relativistic mass increase, length contraction, and time dilation, respectively, and are represented by first three equations of (1). Once a particle reaches c , an observer would see that its mass would become infinitely large, its length would become immeasurably small, and time would appear to stand still. Since Einstein’s mass- energy relationship (1) shows that infinite energy, E , is required to move a particle to light speed due to the infinite increase in relativistic mass, achieving light speed through pure acceleration is considered impossible. The subscript “ o ” denotes the “proper” or “rest state” quantities measured when the velocity of the particle, v , equals zero with respect to the observer’s reference frame. 2 1 c v m m o , 2 1 c v L L o , 2 1 c v t t o , 2 c m E (1) Sublight and superlight relativity stems from the contribution of the square root terms in (1) in that it contains the ratio of particle velocity to light speed, v/c . For particles that exist and travel at only sublight velocities where v/c < 1, the relativistic quantities m, l, and t are positive, real values. For particles like photons that are created and exist only at light speed ( v/c = 1), the square root term equals zero. In this case, t and l become zero, but m becomes undefined. To make the relativistic mass a real value, the proper mass, m o