defend the body from infection. These include your skin, tears, mucus, cilia, stomach acid, urineflow, 'friendly' bacteria and white blood cells called neutrophilsThe second line of defenseis nonspecific resistance that destroys invaders in a generalized way without targeting specific individuals: Phagocytic cells ingest and destroy all microbes that pass into body tissues. For example macrophages are cells derived from monocytes38 What is the role of inflammation? What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?Inflammationis to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair.Heat, pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function39 Explain the differences between innate immunity and adaptive immunity.Innate DefenseAcquire defenseInbornAcquiredPresent in the body at all the timeDeveloped only after the individualis exposed to the pathogenResponds immediately upon infectionTakes about 6 days to respondResponds the same way regardless of pathogenResponds is an antigen specific mannerUnable to keep immunological memoryKeep immunological memory which helps in the development of long term memory40 How is cellular immunity different from humoral immunity? Which one uses B-cells and whichone uses T-cells?Cellular immunity- immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigenHumoral immunity- immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.41 Where do B-cell and T-cells mature?B Cell: Bone marrowT cell : Thymus
42 What is another name for activated T-cells that attack other cells?T helper cells43 What are activated B-cells called and what do they secrete?B-cell activation by armed helper T cells. The surface immunoglobulin that serves as the B-cell antigen receptor has two roles in B-cell activation The effector cells produce and secrete antibodies with a unique antigen-binding44 List the 5 classes of antibodies. Which ones are made first? Which one is the main class of antibodies?IgG- about 80 % of antibodies in serumIgM- Effective in aggregating antigens because it has ten binding sitesIgA- The most common form of antibodies in mucous membranes and body secretionIgD- Found in the blood, lymph and especially on the surface of B cells. We have limited knowledge of their functionIgE- When and antigen such as pollen binds to the antibody, the mast cell or basophil releases histamine45 Which antibodies can cross the placenta?IgGRespiratory system46 List all the parts of upper and lower respiratory tract.Upper respiratory tractare the nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx, and larynxLowerrespiratory tractare trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.47 Explain how the gasses diffuse in the lungs and in peripheral tissues.