Strong powerful state dictatorship results in

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strong, powerful state (dictatorship) Results in economic liberalism with political centralization  and authoritarian rule o Positivism  Sociological doctrine pioneered by a French sociologist which  sees history in a very liberal sense going through stages and  progress which will ultimately lead to a social state that is  characterized by a scientific approach knowledge, living, etc. Positive forms of knowledge (empirically, scientifically) Any social problem that society might confront, there is a way to  study it, understand it and fix it Rationale, scientific thought through ways that we will achieve  progress And we will rely on European and American economic  influence Inferior indigenous individuals are hindering modernization Justification for racism “this is the most rationale way for Mexico to come  together” gives a way to make sense of getting rid of Indian  communities justifying particular forms of economic reform that have a  racist component o Social Darwinism Establishes a basis for a scientific racism which becomes very  strong in the 19 th  century
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Ends in the rule of those social orders which are of the elite and  higher castes Bringing in superior racial people (Europeans) to “drown out” the  gauchos o The racism in Sarmiento is very much a result of this commitment to  this positivism/social science/liberalism/etc. o European immigration will drown out already present demographics  and populations Liberalism in Mexico will become identified with nationalism and the  protection of national identity against foreign invaders o First against Americans, then the French o Liberals come to power as the major political force and will continue to  be through the Mexican revolution Liberalism in Mexico The Porfiriato (Porfirio D í az, 1876-1910) o Accelerated economic development based on foreign investment and  the export of raw materials abroad Foreign capital available: industrial revolution New technologies: RRS, steam shipping Growing foreign markets for LA commodities o Railroads (US controlled) o French capital in financial sector o US capital in oil and mining (Guggenheim, Anaconda, Phelps Dodge) o
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