R&B, Soul17:20jazz musicians who are interested in fusion want to use pop music for their own jazz endswhere does pop go?mainstream pop of 1950s = singersdisplace big bands: Patti Page, Tony Bennett, Perry Como, Nat “King” Colegolden age of pop songLPs for adults, televisionsFrank Sinatra1940s: “The Voice” with Tommy Dorseyballad crooner – uses microphone, not that powerful of a voice1950s: jet-set hipster, film star“Wrap Your Troubles in Dreams:“Too Marvelous for Words” – from TV show; he (vocals) is focus of attention, big band underneath himJazz and TV/filmjazz = “beatnik” cultureunwashed bongo playersMaynard G. Krebs (Dobie Gillis) – 1961soundtracks: crime, drugs, violence, urban decayPeter Gunn theme, Henry Mancini
R&B, Soul17:20Sweet Smell of Success (1957)race music becomes known as “rhythm and blues” (Billboard, 1949)new black audience, urban, affluent“jump music”Nat “King” Cole TrioLouis Jordan and his Tympany Five – pop group directed at modern black audiences, but also aware of white audience and the fact that popularity spills overLouis Jordanblues“shuffle” beat (kinda like boogie-woogie)Southern black humor“Caldonia” – movie short (kind of like a music video)Rhythm and Bluesdance musicnew urbane stules of blackness“Good Rockin’ Tonight” (1948)rhythm and blues becomes…rock ‘n’ roll
R&B, Soul17:20Elvis Presley – “Good Rockin’ Tonight” (1954)Ray Charles, piano (1950s)soul – brings in gospel tradition, which had been set apart from popgospel into popnew forms of “blackness”“I Got a Woman” (1954) – gospel-y beatSoul Jazzkeeping up with black popstrong backbeatsimple harmoniesethnic titles (“Dis Here, Doodlin’)hit singles that will appeal to black communityhard bop bands – hit singles, and then into jazz tunesbebop solo over that tune“The Preacher” Horace Silverknown as “funky” = smell – term tuned around into meaning a down to earth groove, new dance grooveless walking bass syncopated bass lineCannonball Adderley, alto saxMiles Davis Sextet
R&B, Soul17:20Cannonball Adderley Quintet – hardbop band with distinct soul front“Mercy, Mercy, Mercy” – connect with audience and groovepretends to be a preacher“live” recording – “faked” for albumgospel introductionJoe Zawinul, composer, pianistfrom Viennaplaying an electric pianoHammond B-3 Organfrom black church in 1955wanted it to sound good, yet be portableorgan trios: organ + guitar + drumsorgan plays bass line – pedalssoulful groove – local black nightclubs (1950s, 60s)“The Incredible” Jimmy Smithtorrents of notes – keyboard + drawbars + (timbre) pedals (bass)ethnic themes: The Sermon, House Party, Back at the Chicken Shack
Latin Jazz17:20cubop (Cuban musicians mixed with bebop) – Dizzy Gillespie and his own band in 1940s“Manteca”Chano Pozo: Cuban drummeropening: rhythmic layers, static chord progressionbridge: composed by Gillespie, complex chromatic harmoniesfrom Afro-Cuban to big-band bebopsolo: “Big Nick” Nicholassalsanew dance music, 1950s-60sintense polyrhythmtimbales, congas“Cachao Descagra Cubana” 1957“Watermelon Man”cross over from soul jazz radio friendly salsa
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The Land, Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Avantgarde Jazz