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Some undesirable side effects:(1) Parents often spank in response to children’s aggression, the punishment models for aggression(2) Harshly treated children react with anger, resentment, and a chronic sense of being personally threatened (foster self’s distressand not sympathetic orientation)(3) Develop a more conflict-ridden and less supportive parent–child relationship and learn to avoid the punitive parent; effect of teaching desirable behavior is reduced)
(4) stopping misbehavior temporarily with harsh punishments give parents relief, reinforcing them to keep using the method (can spiral in an abuse debate)(5) Children, adolescents, and adults whose parents used corporal punishment—the use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury—are more accepting of such discipline (transfers to the next generation)A prevailing American belief is that corporal punishment, if implemented by caring parents, is harmless, perhaps even beneficialThis assumption is valid only under conditions of limited use in certain social contextsAlternatives to Harsh PunishmentA technique called time outinvolves removing children from the immediate setting—for example, by sending them to their rooms—until they are ready to act appropriately.Few minutes can change behavior and allow time for parent to cool downWithdrawal of privileges, helps avoid harsh punishmentsPunishment can be effective in 3 ways:(1) Consistency.Permitting children to act inappropriately on someoccasions but scolding them on others confuses children, and the unacceptable act persists(2) warm parent–child relationship.Children of involved, caring parents find the interruption in parental affection that accompaniespunishment especially unpleasant (want to regain warmth)(3) Explanations.Providing reasons for mild punishment helps children relate the misdeed to expectations for future behavior (Leads to far greater reduction in misbehavior than using punishment alone)Positive Relationship, Positive Discipline
oThe Cognitive-Developmental PerspectiveRegards children as active thinkersabout social rulesDeciding what is right or wrong based on concepts they construct about justice and fairnessPreschoolers’ Moral UnderstandingMoral imperatives,which protect people’s rights and welfare, from two other types of rules and expectations:
Social conventions,customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals (saying “please” and “thank you”); Matters of personal choice,such as choice of friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual Moral violations > (more wrong) than violations of social conventionsTend to reason rigidly,making judgments based on salient features and consequences while neglecting other important informationPhysical damage > than treating others unfairlyCDP says: they actively make sense