Some undesirable side effects 1 parents often spank

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Some undesirable side effects: (1) Parents often spank in response to children’s aggression, the punishment models for aggression (2) Harshly treated children react with anger, resentment, and a chronic sense of being personally threatened (foster self’s distress and not sympathetic orientation) (3) Develop a more conflict-ridden and less supportive parent– child relationship and learn to avoid the punitive parent; effect of teaching desirable behavior is reduced)
(4) stopping misbehavior temporarily with harsh punishments give parents relief, reinforcing them to keep using the method (can spiral in an abuse debate) (5) Children, adolescents, and adults whose parents used corporal punishment —the use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury—are more accepting of such discipline (transfers to the next generation) A prevailing American belief is that corporal punishment, if implemented by caring parents, is harmless, perhaps even beneficial This assumption is valid only under conditions of limited use in certain social contexts Alternatives to Harsh Punishment A technique called time out involves removing children from the immediate setting—for example, by sending them to their rooms— until they are ready to act appropriately. Few minutes can change behavior and allow time for parent to cool down Withdrawal of privileges, helps avoid harsh punishments Punishment can be effective in 3 ways: (1) Consistency. Permitting children to act inappropriately on some occasions but scolding them on others confuses children, and the unacceptable act persists (2) warm parent–child relationship. Children of involved, caring parents find the interruption in parental affection that accompanies punishment especially unpleasant (want to regain warmth) (3) Explanations. Providing reasons for mild punishment helps children relate the misdeed to expectations for future behavior (Leads to far greater reduction in misbehavior than using punishment alone) Positive Relationship, Positive Discipline
o The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective Regards children as active thinkers about social rules Deciding what is right or wrong based on concepts they construct about justice and fairness Preschoolers’ Moral Understanding Moral imperatives, which protect people’s rights and welfare, from two other types of rules and expectations:
Social conventions, customs determined solely by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals (saying “please” and “thank you”); Matters of personal choice, such as choice of friends, hairstyle, and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual Moral violations > (more wrong) than violations of social conventions Tend to reason rigidly, making judgments based on salient features and consequences while neglecting other important information Physical damage > than treating others unfairly CDP says: they actively make sense

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