Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

111 physical changes in matter a physical change is

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11.1 Physical changes in matter A physical change is one where the particles of the substances that are involved in the change are not broken up in any way. When water is heated for example, the temperature and energy of the water molecules increases and the liquid water evaporates to form water vapour. When this happens, some kind of change has taken place, but the molecular structure of the water has not changed. This is an example of a physical change . H 2 O ( l ) H 2 O ( g ) Conduction (the transfer of energy through a material) is another example of a physical change. As energy is transferred from one material to another, the energy of each material is changed, but not its chemical makeup. Dissolving one substance in another is also a physical change. Definition: Physical change A change that can be seen or felt, but that doesn’t involve the break up of the particles in the reaction. During a physical change, the form of matter may change, but not its identity . A change in temperature is an example of a physical change. There are some important things to remember about physical changes in matter: Arrangement of particles When a physical change occurs, the particles (e.g. atoms, molecules) may re-arrange themselves without actually breaking up in any way. In the example of evaporation that we used earlier, the water molecules move further apart as their temperature (and therefore energy) increases. The same would be true if ice were to melt. In the solid phase, water molecules are packed close together in a very ordered way, but when the ice is heated, the molecules overcome the forces holding them together and they move apart. Once again, the particles have re-arranged themselves, but have not broken up. H 2 O ( s ) H 2 O ( l ) 211
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11.2 CHAPTER 11. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE - GRADE 10 solid liquid gas Figure 11.1: The arrangement of water molecules in the three phases of matter Figure 11.1 shows this more clearly. In each phase of water, the water molecule itself stays the same, but the way the molecules are arranged has changed. In a physical change, the total mass, the number of atoms and the number of molecules will always stay the same. Energy changes Energy changes may take place when there is a physical change in matter, but these energy changes are normally smaller than the energy changes that take place during a chemical change. Reversibility Physical changes in matter are usually easier to reverse than chemical changes. Water vapour for example, can be changed back to liquid water if the temperature is lowered. Liquid water can be changed into ice by simply increasing the temperature, and so on. 11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter When a chemical change takes place, new substances are formed in a chemical reaction. These new products may have very different properties from the substances that were there at the start of the reaction.
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