Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

Decimus brutus one of the leading instigators of

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Decimus Brutus - one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar 's assassination. Decimus Brutus is not to be confused with the more famous Brutus among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus. The assassins received an amnesty the next day, issued by the senate at the instigation of Mark Antony , Caesar's fellow consul . But the situation was not peaceful, Rome's population and Caesar's legionaries wanted to see the conspirators punished. The group decided to lie low, and Decimus used his office of Praetor Peregrinus to stay away from Rome. M. Aemilius Lepidus - a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus ) and Mark Antony , and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic . Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar . Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) - Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire . The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and
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13 divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia. Relations among the Triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide Lucius Antonius - Brother of Marc Antony. Lucius was always a strong supporter of Mark Antony. In 44 BC, the year of Antony's consulship and Julius Caesar 's assassination, Lucius as a tribune of the plebs brought forward a law authorizing Caesar to nominate the chief magistrates during his absence from Rome. After the murder of Caesar, he supported his brother Marcus Gaius Octavius/ Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus - The founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor , controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia . His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus ( Anglicized as Octavian). He, Mark Antony , and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their
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