R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

These four dimensions as we take oa closer look at

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these four dimensions as we take oa closer.;~ look at the aspects of the negotiation process itself. As previously men,,~ tioned, recent studies, particularly those done by Stephen Weiss, havé:~; , ... ~ identified some features of the negotiation process that are clear1y di:f-]) ferent in different cultures. Let's take a look at some of these importaJi~:G! variables. categories. or ways in which all cultures differ in their man<~: ners and styles at the negotiating tableo o';~: Taking a closer look at the way different cultures view similar aspects¿j ofthe negotiation process can give us another valuable penpective'ofi;~ how we Americans handle ourselves at che tableo . "';;1 :,:,j o 'J~ The Basie Coneept of the .. ;;;~ Negotiation .,:.~ .:.J.~ The very definition of negotiating can vary culture to culture. What~! negouation is designed to accomplish is seen differently in New Yo~It;:~ Paris, and Beijing. Here we are talking about the possibility ofmutually~ exclusive expectations. Before one even comes to the table, such differ~:W ences in the meaning or purpose of the negotiation affect the negotia,~~ rion. For example, while Americans generally view negotiation primar~i1 ily as an opportunity to accomplish or resolve a substantive issue, manY~~l cultures view negotiation primarily as an opportunity to build a rel~~'~~ tionship; resolving a particular issue is simply not the first goal. Su~~~ cultures often view the initial meeting as the beginning of a larger nit1~ gotiation encompassing many meetings. Americans are sorely mistake~iEl if they expect an agreement at che end of their ftrst meeting with thei,f,ili Japanese associates, for example. The japanese view the negotiation a$1 a collaborative process of "mind-meeting," which can mandate sever~~¡~ meetings before substantive issues are even discussed. Americans wh9,~~ have traveled halfWay around the world to meet their japanese couni~; terparts for the fint time in Tokyo on Monday and expect to be back i~~~ their office in Detroit on Friday with a signed °deal will surely be disap~~~ pointed;f;~ Simil~rly, Americans tend to view negotiatif!g as a competitíve pr~ ... t~ cess of offers and counteroffers, while che Japanese tend to view th~i~ negotiation as an opportunity for information-sharing. Many Amer;:~~ icans return from negotiations with the Japanese extremel~~ frustrated: "They just kept pumping me for information," "They;~ .'~ :'Intematlonal NegoHating Styles 273 !W(;lUldn't give me any answers, but they sure couId ask questions," "1 ¡.¡got nothing 1 wanted, although they expected me to divulge the most ¡~proprietary information," etc. While these issues reflect, as we've dis~ ~~}l~sed, niany other values, all of these responses indicate a culture ~~ash between the United States and Japan over basic differences in ~lll~ expectations of the negotiation process. At the beginning of a t~~sil!-ess relation~hi~ betv.:eel!- an American and a Japanese, the im- ~tpedlate substantive lssue IS slmply not on the table as far as the Jap~ ~,pese are conc~rned.
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