● Mandatory spending is where the majority of the money goes (required spending by law) the federal government does not decide to increase or decrease amount of money spent instead it is determined by eligibility rules; Entitlements are a claims for government funds that cannot be changed without violating the rights of the claimant. These would include social security, medicare payments, veterans’ benefits, food stamps, and money the government owes investors who have bought bonds.; Discretionary Spending is spending not required to pay for contracts, interest on national debt, or entitlement programs. (not mandated by law). These would include: defense, housing and community development, transportation, education. Most of this could not really be cut without political outcry making it almost mandatory by political opinion. ● Reducing Spending- Sequestors are automatic spending cuts. The first cap was the Balanced budget Act of 1965 ● Levying taxes and increase income tax (see new Republican plan). The law is viewed as good if it imposed modest burdens, prevented cheating and was mildly progressive. The rise of income tax occured in 1968. Previous to this money came mostly from tariffs. Income tax was the 16th amendment. During wartime tax rates
tended to go up and down during peacetime. Wealthier individuals paid at higher rates. Majoritarian politics are at the basis of taxes where almost everyone pays and almost everyone benefits. Very little taxes were paid until world war 2 and they didn’t go back down during peacetime. Most people benefited greatly from loopholes. They could deduct interest they paid on their mortgages, the state and local tax they paid, much of their medical insurance, and the interest they paid on loans. Most people favored small cuts in tax rates coupled with many large deductibles than favored big cuts in tax rates coupled with fewer and smaller deductibles. The 1986 tax reform bill became law and tax rates rose. The top rate was 31%. ● Lochner v New York 1905 struck down as unconstitutional, a New York law limiting the number of hours that may be worked by bakers. ● Muller v Oregon 1980 Upheld an Oregon law limiting the number of hours worked by women; overruled the Lochner decision. ● West Coast Hotel Co. v Parrish Upheld a Washington State minimum wage law for women. ● Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v Sawyer decided the president does not have the authority to seize private steel mills even in wartime. Foreign and Military Policy: Kaia General terms: ● Client is a person or organization using the services of a lawyer or other professional person or company; client politics is when one small group benefits and a larger group pays the cost. ● Majoritarian politics is a system in which almost everybody pays but almost everybody benefits as well.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 13 pages?