Depends on the characteristics of the individual

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→ depends on the characteristics of the individual, object and situation - Customers are more meticulous than others - The particular object in question (e.g. product, ad, service) will affect the degree of involvement (expensive and greater importance means higher involvement, or purchases needing careful consideration, and high perceived risk or high propensity for a negative outcome) - A change in situation can make an everyday purchase extremely important for the customer
9.2 Conditioning Conditioning: learning that is based on the association of a stimulus (information) and a response (behaviour or feeling) - Through exposure to some stimulus and a corresponding response, we learn that the stimulus and the response are either associated (go together) or not associated (don’t go together) Classical conditioning: the process of using an established relationship between a stimulus and a response to bring about the association of that same response to a different stimulus - Positive emotions associated by some stimulus with a particular product - Most common in low-involvement situations → usually low-involvement messages can form associations after a sufficient number of exposures or glances at commercials → emotions and an affective response is voked Pavlov’s example - Dogs naturally salivate (Unconditioned response) in the presence of food (Unconditioned stimulus) - After adding a new stimulus, the bell ringing (conditioned stimulus) provoked salivation (conditioned response), even in the absence of food Similarly - Hearing popular music (unconditioned response) elicits positive emotion (unconditioned response) in many people - If the music is constantly paired with a particular brand of beer (conditioned stimulus), the brand itself will come to elicit the same positive emotion (conditioned response)
Affective response Operant conditioning: the process of learning whereby the consumer’s response to a stimulus is either reinforced by a reward or discouraged by a punishment → it differs from classical conditioning primarily in terms of the role and timing of reinforcement - Consumer is conditioned by consequences after the behaviour - More likely to occur in high-involvement situations Reinforcement plays a much larger role in operant conditioning than it does in classical conditioning - As no automatic stimulus-response relationship is involved, the subject must first be induced to try the desired behaviour → then reinforced (e.g. trial of the product) - Habitual behaviours can take on the form of brand loyalty → consumer develops a preferred attitudinal and purchase response towards a particular brand within a product category as an outcome of positive reinforcement occurring at successive stages - E.g. gaming industry → casinos, gaming centres have rewards in the form of “jackpots” and cheap food → players are “reinforced” to continue to play because of these (rather small and infrequent) rewards - E.g. customer loyalty programs → incentive to strengthen the relationship of the consumer with the brand Punishment -

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