II.B.Girls: self-interest balanced concern for the welfare of self and othersB.1.Individual survival (me)B.2.Self-sacrifice (others)B.3.Equality (me and others)II.C.But, boys and girls are more similar than they are different. The theory over emphasizes•Cognitive DevelopmentI.Jean PiagetI.A.Stage 1: Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)A.1.2 months on – memory for things1.i.Kicking mobile movesA.2.Object permanence – things don’t disappear if cannot see them2.i.5 month old infants can reason about hidden objectsi.a.Interactions with visible objectsI.B.Stage 2: Preoperational (2-7 yrs)B.1.Egocentric thought: think the side of othersB.2.Animism: don’t understand which objective is aliveB.3.Transductive reasoning: don’t have logic orderB.4.One concept at a timeI.C.Early childhood (2-7yrs)C.1.Age 2 solitary playC.2.Between 2-5yrs parallel playC.3.By end of preoperational stage, cooperative playC.4.Stage when kids have imaginary friendI.D.Stage 3: Concrete operational (7-11 yrs)D.1.Reversibility: reverse argument经经D.2.Conservation: start to realize different shape but same volume2.i.Which row of M&M has more, children choose the less but wilder row, 2.ii.Which row want to eat, children choose more. They don’t
understand “more”2.iii.Kids between 3 and 4.7 yrs can answer top questionD.3.Decantation of thought: I.E.Stage 4: formal operational (11+)E.1.Abstract concepts: thought rather than objectsE.2.Adolescent egocentrism2.i.Imaginary audience: think everyone is watching them2.ii.Personal fable: your life is so hard that others cannot imagine2.iii.Hypocrisy: kids have rules that are different from adults, they give themselves free passes2.iv.Pseudostupidity•Emotional/Social DevelopmentI.Infancy (2 wks to 2yrs)I.A.Smiling (around 2mos)I.B.Anger (6-9 mos)I.C.Attachment (fully developed by 2yrs)I.D.Separation anxiety (6-9 mos)II.AdolescenceII.A.SocialA.1.Peers extremely importantA.2.Distancing from parentsII.B.EmotionalB.1.Parent-child conflictsB.2.Mood changesB.3.Risky behavior
Outline for class 15: Motivation and Emotion•What is motivation?I.2 typesI.A. Biological motives (food, drink, warmth)A.1.HungerA.2.ThirstI.B. Psychological motivesB.1.Novel stimulation1.i.Optimal arousal1.ii. Yerkes-Dodson LawB.2.AffiliationB.3.Achievement3.i. Mastery3.ii. Performance approach3.iii.Performance avoidanceB.4.Opponent-Process TheoryB.5.Intrinsic and extrinsicB.6.Maslow's Hierarchy•Emotions•Theories of EmotionI. James-LangeII. Cannon-Bard TheoryIII.Cognitive Theory
Outline for class 16: Social psychology•What is it?•GroupsI. DeindividuationI.A. When people are in the group but tend to feel anonymous and unidentifiableA.1.Lynch mobsA.2.Kitty Genovese: a woman who was beaten and starve to death. 38 people were watching but did nothing to help her2.i.Diffusion of responsibility 经经经经经经: other people there, more people there, less sense of responsibility 2.ii.Being a part of the group help to act2.iii.Steps to help peopleiii.a.Notice an eventiii.b.Interpret as an emergencyiii.c.