L920 argued that these races were injecting an

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, (l920) argued that these races were injecting an inferior racial gene pool into America, destroying the exceptionalism of the Anglo-Saxon race. 2. 3. In certain areas of the country where foreign immigrants, like the Chinese had been in America since the l840s when they first arrived to pan for gold and became the source of cheap labor for building the railroads in the 1860’s under the Burlingame Treaty of l868. Chinese became the object of xenophobia and race hatred during the 1870’s. A part of this had to do with the exploding growth of San Francisco, a major area for Chinese settlement during the railroad building years and the subsequent white migration to the west with the evolving transcontinental railroads. Suddenly the Chinese represented a “yellow peril” and Irishmen like Denis Kearney wrote a manifesto warning that the Anglo-Saxons were being pushed out of economic competition and called on Congress to pass a law stopping the immigration of Chinese. In truth, anti-Chinese behavior had begun before the l870s: 1. The Foreign Miners’ Law of l850 , which was originally passed to limit Mexican miners, was increasingly applied to Chinese miners. 2. Californians fearing economic competition charged $50 for each foreigner, especially Chinese entering California. 3. In the late l850s, race riots drove Chinese out of the mining regions of northern California. The popular statement, “Not a Chinaman’s chance” became tragically true. 4. In the late 1860’s anti-coolie clubs attempted to keep the Chinese in their place or drive them out of California. 5. In l871, a fierce race riot in Los Angeles saw large numbers of Chinese injured or killed. Many believed with the completion of the transcontinental railroad the Chinese would surely go back to China. This was not the case by 1876 more than 116,000 Chinese lived in California. 6. Race hatred of the Chinese was so strong that San Francisco passed the Cubic Air Ordinance that decreed that all adults must have 500 cubic feet of living space, but like the black codes, it only applied to Chinatown. Chinese were arrested for violating the law, sent to jail, where they had their pigtails cut off (a violation of their religious beliefs). 7. A manifesto written Irishman Denis Kearney contributed to the xenophobia and cries for anti-immigration laws. 8. A part of the Kearney Manifesto went: “…We declare that the Chinaman must leave our shores. We declare that white men, and women, and boys, and girls, cannot live as the people of the great
5 republic should and compete with the single Chinese coolie in the labor market. We declare that we cannot hope to drive the Chinaman away by working cheaper than he does. None but an enemy would expect it of us; none but an idiot could hope for success; none but a degraded coward and slave would make the effort. To an American, death is preferable to life on a par with the Chinaman.” 9. This culminated in Congress passing Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 stopping Chinese immigration for a ten-year period. In 1892, the Geary Act (“Dog Tag Law”) required Chinese to carry their residential permit with them or risk imprisonment and deportation. 10. African Americans:

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