22 the arcuate line is found on the os coxa

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22. The arcuate line is found on the os coxa (=innominate bone). 23. The patella is a sesamoid bone that develops within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle. 24. The heel of the foot is formed mainly from a bone called the talus. 25. The arch of the foot that runs at right angles to the long axis of the foot is the median longitudinal arch. 26. The great digit of the foot is called the hallux. 27. The head of the femur articulates with the glenoid fossa of the pelvis. 28. The distinctive pit in the head of the femur is called the lesser sciatic notch. 29. The large lever-like bony projection near the head of the femur is called the adductor tubercle. 30. The linea aspera is a an important landmark that runs longitudinally along the posterior side of the femur. 31. The main weight bearing articulation between the leg and ankle occurs between the tibia and the calcaneous. 32. The sustentaculum tali is an important landmark on the calcaneus.
. Lab 4. Inferior appendicular skeleton 69 Name: Lab section: LABORATORY 4 REPORT INFERIOR APPENDICULAR SKELETON Format: Group report (2-4 students per group); written; due next lab. 1. Examine the skeleton marked with muscle origins and insertions and determine the special functions of the following landmarks: Anterior superior spine of ilium Ischial tuberosity Greater trochanter of femur Linea aspera of femur Tuberosity of tibia Tuberosity of calcaneus 2. Describe, with the aid of labeled sketches, the arches of the foot, and explain how they are adaptive for humans. 3. Explain how the human pectoral and pelvic girdles differ structurally and functionally. 4. What significant differences occur in the structure of the inferior appendicular skeleton of a quadruped such as a cat, compared with that of the human. What inferences might these differences lead one to draw?
. Lab 4. Inferior appendicular skeleton 70
Lab 5. Integumentary system 71 LABORATORY 5 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM The integumentary system is a large organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and a variety of associated glands. It gives the body structural integrity, protects from the invasion of pathogens and parasites, serves as an important sense organ, performs excretory functions, and helps to regulate our thermal and water balances. As we prepare to dissect the cadaver, the integumentary system is the first system encountered. In this laboratory we will study the structure and composition of the integumentary system through dissection of cats and the cadaver. We will also examine models and microscope slides. OBJECTIVES Study and learn the structure of the integument and its appendages. Compare the integument and integumentary appendages of the cat with that of the human. METHODS AND MATERIALS We will begin our study of the integument by examining a model and illustrations. Then, the structure of the integument will be investigated by dissection of the cat. The integumentary structures should then be reviewed as the integument of the cadaver is carefully removed in preparation for later study of the muscular system. During this laboratory the following materials will be studied: Embalmed cat with arteries and veins injected with colored latex, human cadaver, model showing skin structure, and microscope slides showing structure of skin and appendages. Students will need to bring examination gloves, scalpel, blades, and forceps. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Embalming fluid should not be allowed to contact your skin or eyes. Protect your skin by wearing examination gloves at all times when handling embalmed materials. In case of accidental exposure to embalming fluid or other preservatives, wash it off skin as soon as possible using soap and water. In case embalming fluid accidentally contacts eyes, wash eyes using clean water and seek medical advice if irritation persists. Students

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