○The 2 most ruggedly individualist centers of the colonial era—homes of the “otherwise minded”—thus ran true to form●These 4 states did not want to ratify the Constitution, but they could not safely exist as the only states "outside of the fold."A Conservative Triumph●The minority had triumphed 2 times, a minority of American radicals had engineered the military Revolution that cast off the unwritten British constitution and a minority of conservatives—now embracing many of the earlier radicals—had engineered the peaceful revolution that overthrew the inadequate constitution known as the Articles of Confederation○11 states, in effect, had seceded from the Confederation, leaving the 2 still in, actually out in the cold●A majority had not spoken, only about ¼ of the adult white males in the country, chiefly the propertied people, had voted for delegates to the ratifying conventions○Careful estimates indicate that if the new Constitution had been submitted to a manhood-suffrage vote, as in New York, it would have encountered much more opposition, probably defeat●Conservatism was victorious. Safeguards had been erected against mob-rule excesses, while the republican gains of the Revolution were conserved.●Radicals such as Patrick Henry, who had ousted British rule, saw themselves in turn upended by American conservatives.
●The federalists were convinced that by setting the drifting ship of state on a steady course, they could restore economic and political stability●The architects of the Constitution believed that every branch (executive, judiciary,and legislative) effectively represented the people○Unlike the antifederalists, who believed that the sovereignty of the people resided in a single branch of government●By embedding the doctrine of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances among these branches, the Constitution reconciled the potentially conflicting principles of liberty and orderThe Pursuit of Equality●“All men are created equal,” the Declaration of Independence had proclaimed, and equality was everywhere the watchword during this formative and tumultuous period○Most states reduced (but usually did not eliminate altogether) property-holding requirements for voting○Ordinary men and women demanded to be addressed as “Mr.” and “Mrs.”—titles once reserved for the wealthy and highborn. ○Employers were now called “boss,” not “master.”●In 1784 New Yorkers released a shipload of freshly arrived indentured servants, on the grounds that their status violated democratic ideals○by 1800 this kind of bonded labor was virtually unknown●The Continental Army officers formed an exclusive hereditary order called the Society of the Cincinnati and most Americans ridiculed them○Society of the Cincinnati:Exclusive, hereditary organization of former officers in the Continental Army. Many resented the pretentiousness of the order, viewing it as a vestige of pre-Revolutionary traditions.