Silk - Mostly traded for incomed)Carpetse)Artillery - With limited access to gunpowder, the Safavid were still able to develop some basic gunpowder artilleryIV.Slave Systems and the Slave TradeA.Different Slave Systems1.Encomiendaa)Labor system imposed by the Spaniards known for its harsh and inhumane working conditions. Due to the conditions of the silver mines.b)Under this system, landowners compelled natives to work for them in exchange for food and shelter.2.Mit’a coerced labor systema)A system of mandatory public service in the Inca Empire, in which men from the ages of 15 to 50 periodically provided agricultural and other types of labor, like construction, as a tribute to the government.b)Was turned into a coerced labor system by the Spaniards upon the conquest of the Incas to take advantage of the emerging silver mining industry. Typically worked for one year.3.Slave Plantations/Haciendasa)Brought African slaves to work on the plantations. Haciendas were plantations located in Spanish America.B.The Slave Trade1.Transatlantic Slave Tradea)Transported between 10 million and 12 million enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas from the 16th to the 19th century.b)People were indiscriminately kidnapped and taken from their homes to thebarracoons (holding pens) on the coast to await for transport to the Americas.(1)Some African kingdoms, like the Kongo Kingdom and Dahomey, profited off this trade - they handed over poor people in exchange for manufactured goods and firearms. The new technology they were gaining led to them being able to capture people more easily, which continued in a vicious cycle.c)Slaves went through the Middle Passage, the grueling and often deadly journey from Africa to the Americas by boat.d)Slaves went to the Caribbean and other tropical areas for “seasoning” (breaking them, essentially) to see who survived, and then were sent out to different colonies.e)Was dominated primarily by the Portuguese and, to a lesser extent, the Spaniards.2.Indian Ocean Slave Tradea)Largely centered on Eastern African city-statesb)Main customer was the Dar-al-Islam
7V.Demographic and Environmental ChangesA.New Diseases1.Smallpox ⟶Highly contagious virus spread through the respiratory system that is characterized by fever, weakness, and skin eruptions with pustules that form scabs; responsible for the extermination of multiple Amerindian peoples.2.Influenza ⟶This flu attacks the lungs, nose and throat. It causes fever and muscle aches. Was brought to the Americas in the Columbian Exchange.3.Malaria ⟶A disease caused by a parasite that invades red blood cells. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions (i.e. Sub-Saharan Africa), and is often deadly without proper treatment and medication.
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