# 423 236 times higher hazards of developing coronary

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that males have (1/0.423 =) 2.36 times higher hazards of developing coronary heart disease compared to the females. In other words, females have 2.36 times lower hazards of developing coronary heart disease compared to the males. 4. How does the hazard ratio compare to the odds ratio obtained from the simple logistic regression from the previous problem? Why might they differ? (3 points) The odds ratio from the simple binary logistic regression and the hazards ratio from the Cox proportional hazards model are slightly different. For example, simple binary logistic regression shows that males have (1/0.332) = 3.01 higher odds of having coronary heart disease, while the Cox proportional hazards model shows that males have (1/0.423 =) 2.36 times higher hazards of developing coronary heart disease compared to the females. The hazard ratio and the odds ratio are different because one of the methods (i.e. Cox proportional hazards model from which hazard ratio was obtained) accounts for the time of the event and takes care of the censoring and skewness associated with survival data while the other method (i.e. simple binary logistic regression from which odds ratio was obtained) does not.

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