the observed effect size and the virtual effect size established to correct the

The observed effect size and the virtual effect size

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the observed effect size and the virtual effect size established to correct the effect of the publication bias. The reason for the difference is the asymmetry of the concen- tration on both sides of the center line and the studies plotted to the left of and above the center line, skewing the symmetry. 34 E. C ¸ akmak et al.
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3 Findings Table 3 shows the results of the meta-analysis of leadership effects on job satisfac- tion. The findings supported H 1, which predicted there would be a positive rela- tionship between leadership and job satisfaction. The effect size of leadership on job satisfaction was calculated to be 0.48. This value shows that leadership has a medium-level effect (see Cohen, 1988 ) on job satisfaction. The findings did not support hypothesis H 2 , which argued that the type of publication would play a moderating role in the effect of leadership on job satis- faction. Although the moderator analysis did not find a statistically significant difference between the effect sizes of the sample groups (Q b ¼ 0.80, p > 0.05), the effect size of articles [ r ¼ 0.45] and dissertations [ r ¼ 0.49] was found to be of a medium level. The research did not support H 3 , which hypothesized that year of publication would play a moderating role in the effect of leadership on job satisfaction. Although the moderator analysis did not find a statistically significant difference between the effect sizes of the publication years (Q b ¼ 4.63, p > 0.05), effect size of publications before 1990 [ r ¼ 0.40] and from 1990 to 1999 [ r ¼ 0.47] were found to be of a medium level; for 2010 and beyond [ r ¼ 0.53], was is found to be high. Fig. 1 Effect size funnel for publication bias Table 2 Duval and Tweedie s trim and fill test results Excluded study Point estimate CI (Confidence interval) Q Lower limit Upper limit Observed values 0.48 0.44 0.52 30,939.6 Adjusted values 80 0.34 0.28 0.40 91,909.5 The Effect of Leadership on Job Satisfaction 35
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The results of the moderator analysis showed that H 4, regarding the moderating role of the sample group on the effect size of leadership and job satisfaction, was not supported. The moderator analysis did not find a statistically significant difference in the effect size between the sample groups (Q b ¼ 30.76, p > 0.05). A medium- Table 3 Findings of the correlations between leadership and job satisfaction: results of meta- analysis Variables k N r Confidence interval Q Q b Lower limit Upper limit Job satisfaction 318 148,501 0.48* 0.44 0.52 30,939.6* Moderator (publication type) 0.80 Article 110 102,004 0.45* 0.38 0.52 Dissertation 208 46,497 0.49* 0.44 0.54 Moderat or (Yayım yılı) 4.63 Before 1990 37 8,137 0.40* 0.27 0.52 1990–1999 43 10,737 0.47* 0.35 0.58 2000–2009 125 99,233 0.53* 0.47 0.59 2010 and beyond 113 30,394 0.45* 0.37 0.52 Moderator (sample group/sector) 1.59 Education 121 57,560 0.46* 0.39 0.52 Service 137 77,124 0.48* 0.41 0.53 Security 8 1,344 0.58* 0.32 0.75 Health 49 11,925 0.52* 0.41 0.61 Spor 3 548 0.42 ± 0.08 0.76 Moderator (leadership style/approach) 30.76* Othantic 5 1,160 0.53* 0.17 0.76 Democratic 3 1,695 0.28 ± 0.23 0.67 Others 34 8,364 0.34* 0.19 0.47 Distributive 2 1,900 0.00 ± 0.56 0.57 Ethical 2 415 0.52 ± 0.07 0.84 Instructional 2 328 0.37 ± 0.26 0.78 Entellectual 2 1,319 0.37 ± 0.25 0.77 Leadership behaviors 70 18,792 0.44* 0.35 0.53 Leadership skills 3 16,348 0.81* 0.54 0.93 Leadership efficiency 6 826 0.21 ± 0.17 0.54 Leadership practices 31 7,345 0.51* 0.37 0.62 Participatory 7 3,366 0.50* 0.20 0.72 Servant 20 10,252 0.73* 0.61 0.81 Supportive 4 20,765 0.40 ± 0.02 0.71 Transformational 125 55,113 0.49* 0.42 0.55
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  • Winter '19
  • Dr Tolla
  • The Land, Leadership Quarterly, Leadership and Organizational Outcomes, M. K. M.

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