Although less well organized than the Federalists, they also had an impressive group of leaders who were especially prominent in state politics. Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the Constitution. Written by James Madison in response to calls from several states for greater constitutional protection for individual liberties, the Bill of Rights lists specific prohibitions on governmental power. checks and balances a system of constitutional government which guards against absolute powerby providing for separate ex ecutive, judicial, and legislative bodies whoshare powers and thereby check and balance one another The Constitution: Analysis and Interpretation contains legal analysis and interpretation of the United States Constitution, based primarily on Supreme Court case law. This regularly updated resource is especially useful when researching the constitutional implications of a specific issue or topic Federalism division of powers between the national and state governments. FEDERALISTS : The supporters of the proposed Constitution. Their adopted name implied a commitment to a loose, decentralized system of government. In many respects " FEDERALISM " — which implies a strong central government — was the opposite of the proposed plan that they supported. The great compromise: was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution . James Madison, (1751 –1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights . Jay’s treaty 1794 representatives of the United States and Great Britain signed Jay’s Treaty, which sought to settle outstanding issues between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence. John Adams , a remarkable political philosopher, served as the second President of the United States (1797-1801), after serving as the first Vice President under President George Washington. New jersey plan: was a proposal for the structure of the United States Government presented by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787. Pinckney's Treaty , was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. Quasi war: was an undeclared naval war between the United States and France. The conflict lasted between 1798 and 1800, and was a formative moment for the United States. Although it occurred during John Adams' presidency, Republicans: The party is named after republicanism , the dominant value during the American Revolution . It was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex- Whigs , and ex- Free Soilers in 1854.
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