Origins of parole alexander maconochie norfolk island

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Origins of Parole - Alexander Maconochie- Norfolk Island - the “father of parole”, he believed prisoners were capable of reformation; established a mark system where prisoners could earn their way through trhee grades by good work and behavior; the thirs grade was earning a “ticket of leave” which provided conditional liberty; his plan of reformation worked but England found out about his system and thought he was too lenient about how he was treating offenders and just releasing them. Sir Walter Crofton- Irish System -applied Maconochie’s “ticket of leave” to the Irish prison system; attached conditions to the leave which could result in one being returned to prison; was a refinement of Maconochie’s ideas; allowed inmates to earn their way back to freedom in Ireland. Delopment of Parole in the US Release Mechanisms Discretionary Release Mandatory Release - the accumulation of good-time days resulting in a mandatory release as a matter of law; Unconditional Release - a mandatory release is unconditional. Organization of Parole Authorities Release Decisions Presumptive Parole Date Risk Assessment
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Work Release - an alternative to total incarceration whereby inmates are permitted to work for pay in the community but must spend their nonworking hours in the institution; offers the benefit of re-shaping an offender’s self-image and promoting the process of decarceration and offenders can assume some financial responsibilities. Educational Release - an extension of the work-release principle that is offered to minimum-security, parole-eligible inmates who seek vocational or academic enrichment. Furloughs and Temporary Release - a furlough is an authorized, unescorted absence from a correctional institution for a specified period; it is granted for the purpose of enabling inmates to reestablish community contacts and family ties on a gradual basis; when the prison allows the inmate to go out of the prison and visit family, look for an apartment, look for a job etc. but then the offender has to come back to prison within a specified amount of time; a short leave. Community Corrections - there are multiple and sometime conflicting missions of community corrections like punishing offenders, protecting the community, reducing crime, saving money, and preventing prison crowding; there a different priorities in community corrections and this can pose problems. Community Correctional Centers Halfway Houses -designed for inmates who are just a few months away from their parole dates, these residential facilities provide individual counseling, vocational guidance, and job placement; residents are required to abide by minimum security regulations and attend counseling and therapy sessions and seek employment when ready. Revocation of Parole - when parole is revoked and the probationer is normally sent back to jail or prison for committing a new crime or a technical violation. Future of Parole
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