A complex is a collection of sites that may or may not be owned by the same

A complex is a collection of sites that may or may

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A complex is a collection of sites that may or may not be owned by the same business entity. A site within a complex may feed or take feed from another site within the same complex or be totally independent.
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A facility , is any element that simplifies an activity’s execution, such as a machine tool, a work centre, a division, a manufacturing unit, and so on. Principles of plant layout 1. Principle of integration: A good layout is one that integrates men, materials, machines and supporting services and others in order to get the optimum utilisation of resources and maximum effectiveness. 2. Principle of minimum distance: This principle is concerned with the minimum travel (or movement) of man and materials. The facilities should be arranged such that, the total distance travelled by the men and materials should be minimum and as far as possible straight line movement should be preferred. 3 . Principle of cubic space utilisation: The good layout is one that utilise both horizontal and vertical space. It is not only enough if only the floor space is utilised optimally but the third dimension, i.e., the height is also to be utilised effectively. 4. Principle of flow: A good layout is one that makes the materials to move in forward direction towards the completion stage, i.e., there should not be any backtracking. 5 . Principle of maximum flexibility : The good layout is one that can be altered without much cost and time, i.e., future requirements should be taken into account while designing the present layout. 6. Principle of safety, security and satisfaction: A good layout is one that gives due consideration to workers safety and satisfaction and safeguards the plant and machinery against fire, theft, etc.
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7. Principle of minimum handling: A good layout is one that reduces the material handling to the minimum. Types of plant layout Plant layout are of four types: Product or line layout Process or functional layout Fixed position or location layout Combined/hybrid layout Process layout A process layout is one where the processes, workstations or departments are organized according to function. This type of layout is typically used in low volume, high-variety manufacturing where demand is too low or unpredictable for resources to be dedicated to a particular product or product groups, that is, a job shop. In this type of layout machines of similar type are arranged together at one place. E.g. Machines performing drilling operations are arranged in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations be grouped in the casting department. Therefore the machines are installed in the plants, which follow the process layout. Hence, such layouts typically have drilling department, milling department welding department, heating department and painting department etc. The process or functional layout is followed from historical period. It evolved from the handicraft method of production. The work has to be allocated to each department in such a way that no machines are chosen to do as many different job as possible i.e. the emphasis is on general purpose machines.
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  • Spring '14
  • Onyancha PhD

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