Ingeorgiawomens representation through proportional

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InGeorgia,women's representation through proportional listshasbeen increasing. For example, in the 2012election, 14percent ofthe seats won by women came through the proportional list,a4percent increase since the previous election (Bagratia2013).Lessbeneficial towomen isthe sin- gle constituency majoritarian system, in which parties tend to choose as their candidate an authority in the society-someone with a good rep- utation and access to finances. This leaves less chance for women to be The Election System method bywhich dis rimination 111 the (j 'Id ofpoliLics('III Ill' l'lInlilli)ll'd, and nor does itsuggest that political parti sshould be r'gullli 'd. The 2009Organic Law on Political Unions of Citizens csts blished Ihu definition,rights, and duties ofpoliticalparties inGeorgia.Twoyears later, an amendment to the law was introduced, providing financial incentives toimplement voluntary measures toincrease femaleparticipation inpolit- icallife. Politicalparties areeligiblefora30percent increase infunding as- suming they include atleast the same percentage ofwomen among every ten candidates in proportional lists (Parliament of Georgia 2009).How- ever, the goal of incentivizing political parties to include more women in proportional lists has not been met. In 2012,some political parties did apply this measure and yet did not address low female representation in their parties. Variousexperts argue that thefinancialincentive isnot anef- fectivemeasure insolving the issue oflow femalepolitical representation (Bagratia2013;Chkheidze 2014;Pataraia 2015). Although the government ofGeorgia has adopted asignificant gender e~ual~typolicy,implementation of these policies by the state is lacking. Smcemdependence, women remain underrepresented inpolitical parties because ofthe deeply gendered election process. Domestic legislation has not been adequately informed by gender analysis nor included specific gender features, which would goalong way inensuring gender isabasis forand integral towomen's participation inevery field.
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