Coupled with the need to do research in multiple countries, research firms faced a com- pression of the timeline. Instead of having months to complete a marketing research study, many companies now expect the entire project to be completed within 6–8 weeks. 13 For this to happen, the data collection component of the research needed to be streamlined. This time compression for research studies contributed to an increased reliance on firms specializing in sample provision, primarily with online samples. In almost all cases, online data collection can occur considerably faster than other methods such as telephone, mail, or in person. OVERVIEW OF THE TEXT The textbook is divided into four sections. Section 1 introduces marketing research by provid- ing an overview of marketing research and an explanation of the marketing research process. Section 2 reviews the various types of marketing research, including secondary research, quali- tative research, observation research, experimental research, and survey research. The third section explains how data are obtained via sampling and measured using scales and survey questions. Questionnaire design considerations are also addressed. Finally, Section 4 describes how data are analyzed using fundamental and more advanced statistical methods, and how they are reported. Global Concerns Because of the increase in global competition and due to the elimination of geographic barriers and lower costs provided by the Internet, marketing research is now being conducted on a broader scale that involves multiple countries. Compared to the past, fewer studies by major firms are limited to the United States or just one country. Expanding research into additional countries involves some unique challenges that will be highlighted in each of the chapters of this text. A primary challenge, of course, is the translation of surveys into various languages. English is a very rich language, and sometimes there is not an equivalent word available in a foreign lan- guage, forcing the question to be reworded to ensure a similar meaning. But, more problematic is the difference in cultures. What is appropriate to ask in one country may be deemed to be inappropriate in another. For instance, interviewing females in Western countries is perfectly acceptable. But, to do so in many Middle Eastern countries is not as acceptable unless a male is present. Furthermore, in most cases it needs to be a female-female surveyor and respondent relationship. In some countries like the United States, getting individuals to participate in studies is dif- ficult. That is one reason for the increased usage of online panels and databases. But, in some of the developing countries, individuals are eager to participate in studies. It is novel and new to them. Of course, this raises questions of how representative the samples are in both situa- tions, in the United States where participation is difficult to obtain and in other countries where individuals are eager to participate.
- Fall '16