Specialized exocrine glands found in dermis sebaceous

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Specialized exocrine glands found in dermis Sebaceous (oil) glands Sudiferous (sweat) glands Ceruminous (wax) glands Mammary (milk) glands
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Sebaceous (oil) glands Secretory portion in the dermis Most open onto hair shafts Sebum combination of cholesterol, proteins, fats & salts keeps hair and skin from soft & pliable inhibits growth of bacteria & fungi(ringworm) Acne bacterial inflammation of glands secretions stimulated by hormones at puberty
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Sudoriferous (sweat) glands Eccrine (sweat) glands most areas of skin secretory portion in dermis with duct to surface regulate body temperature with perspiration Apocrine (sweat) glands armpit and pubic region secretory portion in dermis with duct that opens onto hair follicle secretions more viscous
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Ceruminous glands Modified sweat glands produce waxy secretion in ear canal Cerumin contains secretions of oil and wax glands Helps form barrier for entrance of foreign bodies Impacted cerumen may reduce hearing
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General Functions of the Skin Regulation of body temperature Protection as physical barrier Sensory receptors (cutaneous sensations) Excretion and absorption Synthesis of vitamin D Blood reservoir
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Thermoregulation Releasing of sweat onto the skin perspiration & its evaporation lowers body temperature Adjusting flow of blood to the body surface in moderate exercise, more blood brought to surface helps lower temperature with extreme exercise, blood is shunted to muscles and body temperature rises Shivering and constriction of surface vessels raise internal body temperature as needed
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Protection Physical, chemical and biological barrier tight cell junctions prevent bacterial invasion lipids released retard evaporation pigment protects somewhat against UV light langerhans cells alert immune system
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Excretion and Absorption Only a minor role is played by the skin 400 mL of water evaporates from it daily Small amounts salt, CO2, ammonia and urea are excreted Lipid soluble substances can be absorbed through the skin vitamins A, D, E and K, Oxygen and CO2 acetone and dry-cleaning fluid, lead, mercury, arsenic, poisons in poison ivy and oak
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Synthesis of Vitamin D Sunlight activates a precursor to vitamin D
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