Catabolic reactions i breakdown of larger molecules

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Catabolic reactions i. Breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones 1. Usually exergonic c. Anabolic reactions i. Synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones 1. Usually endergonic 30) Describe how catabolic reactions are used to generate building blocks to make larger molecules and to produce energy intermediates a. Recycling of organic building blocks i. Reusing polypeptides and amino acid sequences b. Breakdown of organic molecules to obtain energy i. Used to drive endergonic processes in the cell ii. Energy intermediates: short lived, high energy, highly reactive molecule (ATP) iii. Substrate level phosphorylation 1. Occurs when an enzyme directly transfers a phosphate a. From an organic molecule to ADP, making ATP iv. Chemiosmosis 1. Way to make ATP 2. Energy is used to make ATP from ADP and Pi 31) Understand redox reactions a. Ae- + B = A + Be- b. Transfer of electrons c. Oxidation i. Removal of one or more electrons from an atom d. Reduction i. Addition of one or more electrons to an atom ii. Reduces the net charge of an atom or molecule 32) Compare and contrast how metabolic pathways are regulated a. Gene regulation: turning genes on and off b. Cellular regulation: activating processes (Ex: fight or flight response) c. Biochemical regulation i. Feedback inhibition: example of noncompetitive inhibition 1. The product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme that acts early in the pathway, preventing the overaccumulation of the product d. Regulation of the rate limiting step i. Rate limiting step 1. The slowest step in the pathway, an efficient and rapid way to control the amount of product of a pathway 33) Explain the relationship between the recycling of organic molecules and cellular efficiency a. Half-life i. Time it takes for 50% of a molecule in a cell to be broken down and recycled b. Recycling is important i. To compete effectively and save energy/materials 34) Outline how the building blocks of proteins are recycled a. Cells continually degrade faulty or unnecessary proteins i. Proteases: enzymes that break down amino acids ii. Proteasomes: the primary pathway for protein
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degradation in eukaryotic cells 1. Break down proteins iii. Ubiquitin 1. Attach to a target protein 35) Describe how the components of cellular organelles are recycled via autophagy a. Autophagy: endocytosis i. Lysosomes help digest intracellular materials ii. Double membrane wraps around organelle and forms a 1. Autophagosome a. Fuses with lysosome and material is digested b. Digested molecules are recycled back into cytosol 36) Describe the metabolic pathways that are needed to break down glucose to CO2 and H2O a. Glycolysis i. Cytosol ii. (6C) Glucose molecule + 2NAD + +2ATP +4ADP + 4P i = 2(3C) Pyruvate + 2NADH + 2ADP + 4 ATP b. Substrate Level Phosphorylation i. Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle ii. ADP + Pi = ATP c. Pyruvate Oxidation i. Mitochondrial Matrix ii. Anaerobic or Aerobic iii. 2 Pyruvate + 2CoA = 2 AcetylCoA + 2NADH + 2CO 2 d. Citric Acid Cycle i. Mitochondrial Matrix ii. 2 Acetyl CoA + 6NAD + + 2 FAD + 2 ADP + 2Pi = 4CO 2 + 6NADH + 2FADH + 2ATP e. Oxidative Phosphorylation i.
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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