° ° Families in Industrial Era ° Working family unit split into 2 spheres: Work and home ° Men left home production for wage work in factories ° Women’s role was the unpaid management of the home (including raising children) ° Gendered division of labor became prominent ° Mobility of families searching for paid jobs increased and this created separation from kinship networks ° Creation of the ‘cult of domesticity’: the notion that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearing Families after WWII The model nuclear family: attainable by a few Economic Boom Migration to suburbs Many women quit jobs and returned to full time domesticity Divorce rate dropped Fertility rates increased (i.e. ‘baby boom’) Trends in families were atypical Changes in U.S. Families Increases in:
Age at 1 st marriage o Men: 28.8 o Women: 26 Proportion of young adults remaining single Unmarried couples Single parent families Non-marital births Wives and mothers working Dual career families ° Unmarried couples/cohabitation: living together in an intimate relationship without formal, legal, or religious sanctioning ° Dual Career Families: families in which both partners work ° ° Women, Work, and Family ° Women’s full-time employment has increased from 68% in 1970 to 82% in 2009 ° Second Shift: women’s responsibility for housework and child care ° ° African American Families ° Upper and middle class AA families focus on achievement and maintaining class interests ° AA families in poverty are likely to be headed by women, high birth rates to single women ° Men are likely to be unemployed with few marketable skills ° Sharing resources and stretching kinships are survival mechanisms used ° ° Latino Families ° Latino families act as safety nets (members assist each other) ° Strong sense of community ° Traditional rules about gender and authority are enforced ° Devout Catholics-high religiosity ° High rates of marriage and low rates of divorce ° High non-marital child births
Families in Modern Day U.S. 12/17/2014 ° Nuclear: married (heterosexual) partners and bio-children
° Extended: kin networks that extend outside the nuclear family ° Commuter: both partners work and have separate residences in different geographic locations ° Step and Blended: a family whose members were once a part of other families ° ‘Sandwich Generation’: people responsible for 2 other generations- their children and their aging parents ° ° DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act): 1996-federally recognizes marriages must be heterosexual 2013-DOMA was repealed (the Supreme Court invalidated the Act) ° Same-sex: married/non-married homosexual couples with/without children-biological, adopted, surrogate ° Civil Union: legally recognized unions explicitly intended to offer similar state rights and benefits as marriage ° Domestic Partnership: legal unions with select rights ° Cohabiting: unmarried couples living together in sexual relationship (children) °
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