CogPsych Notes 8.30.17.docx

Role of reinforcement o shaping spontaneous behavior

Info icon This preview shows pages 4–6. Sign up to view the full content.

Role of reinforcement o Shaping spontaneous behavior Behaviorism becomes the dominant psychological theory int eh US o 1930’s – early 1960’s o “MIND” is purged from textbooks or referred to pejoratively as “mentalism” 3 characteristics of behaviorism Positivist o Only directly observable phenomena can be studied scientifically Associationist
Image of page 4

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

o The fundamental psychological phenomenon is the stimulus – response bond A more restrictive view of association than is found in philosophy) Empiricist o Learning is the most important psychological phenomenon o At birth, the organism is a tabula rasa (blank slate) that will be formed and shaped through experience with the environment Cognitive Theory Arose in reaction to behaviorism Positivist Uses theoretical constructs and indirect evidence Associationist Allows more complex representations than simple bonds; association is just one of many types of mental process Empiricist Learning is viewed as important, but so too are innate mechanisms and innate knowledge Indirect Evidence: Donders’ Method Developed by a Dutch physiologist Also known as the “Method of Subtraction” An example of a chronometric (“time measure”) method Tasks of different levels of complexity are nested inside of one another Reaction time (RT) is measured and attributed to mental activity Assumes that o Mental processes take measurable amounts of time o The times used by component processes are additive Indirect Evidence: Ebbinghaus (1885) Studied memory Pioneered the use of nonsense syllables o DAX, LUH, ZIF, etc. o Wanted to measure memory without the influence of meaning or prior associations Tested himself Learned lists of nonsense syllables in order o Recall 1 st item, see if correct, recall 2 nd item, see if correct, etc.
Image of page 5
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern