to measure. Assessment tools must be reliable and valid. Van der Linden, D., Tsaousis, I., & Petrides, K. V. (2012), concluded regarding the consistency of the General Factors of Personality (GFP), they found that the general factors from the two different personality inventories, the Big Five and the Giant Three, strongly overlapped. Sipps, G. J., & Alexander, R. A. (1987) concluded that the MTBI, Extraversion-Introversion (EI), and Judgement-Perception scales appear to be pure, internally consistent measures.
The views detailing the history of personality have changed drastically. The history of personality psychology dates as far back as Ancient Greece. Philosophers since the 4th Century BC have been trying to define exactly what it is that makes us unique. In 370 BC, Hippocrates proposed two pillars of temperament: hot/cold and moist/dry, resulting in four humors or combinations of these qualities (Ford, 2013). The hot and dry combination was referred to as yellow bile, cold and dry as black bile, hot and wet was blood and cold and wet was phlegm. Though much of the work that arose from this theory of the Four Humors was medicinal in nature, it was also hypothesized that a patient's personality is be influenced by humoral
Literature Review 4
imbalances (Ford, 2013). Freud suggested that the human psyche consists of three main components: the id, the ego and the superego which control all conscious and unconscious thought and therefore behavior. The id can be thought of as the innate drivers of behavior. It encompasses bodily needs and desires and, according to Freud, drives us to seek out these wants. The ego can be thought of as the bridge between the id and reality; it is what finds realistic ways to achieve what the id wants and also finds justifications and rationalizations for these desires (Ford, 2013). Lastly, the superego is the organized component of the psyche and is often referred to as the moral check of the ego. It is responsible for conscience and for regulating the drives of the id and ego by providing a sense of right and wrong. The literature that was examined in this literature review focused on biological traits. Van der Linden, D., Tsaousis, I., & Petrides, K. V. (2012) stated that previous studies have suggested that higher-order personality factors, such as the GFP, reflect nothing more than a methodological or statistical artifact and that another previous study that researchers had suggested that the GFP is a substantive factor with theoretical and real-life implications. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991) stated that previous researchers concluded that the validity of personality as a predictor of job performance is quite low, but another study investigated the validity of personality measures (across dimensions and occupations) for different types of criteria, but no definitive conclusions were apparent from the data. Kim, S., Stewart, R., Bae, K., Kim, S., Shin, I., Hong, Y. J., & Kim, J. (2016) examined the Big Five personality traits to identify the influence of personality traits on the treatment response and longitudinal course of depression in patients with ACS. This study concluded that
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