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Low power distance societies have small gaps between

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Low-power distance societies have small gaps between the weak and powerful. Firms tend toward flat organizational structures, with relatively equal relations between managers and workers. For example, Scandinavian countries instituted various systems to ensure socioeconomic equality. International Business: The New Realities 4-8
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Hofstede’s Typology (cont’d) Uncertainty avoidance refers to the extent to which people can tolerate risk and uncertainty in their lives. High uncertainty avoidance societies create institutions to minimize risk and ensure security. Firms emphasize stable careers and regulate worker actions. Decisions are made slowly. Examples: Belgium, France, Japan In low uncertainty avoidance societies, managers are relatively entrepreneurial and comfortable with risk. Firms make decisions quickly. People are comfortable changing jobs. Examples: Ireland, Jamaica, U.S. International Business: The New Realities 4-9
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Hofstede’s Typology (cont’d) Masculinity versus femininity refers to a society’s orientation based on traditional male and female values. Masculine cultures value competitiveness, ambition, assertiveness, and the accumulation of wealth. Both men and women are assertive, focused on career and earning money. Examples: Australia, Japan. Feminine cultures emphasize nurturing roles, interdependence among people, and caring for less fortunate people – for both men and women. Examples: Scandinavian countries, where welfare systems are highly developed, and education is subsidized. International Business: The New Realities 4-10
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Hofstede’s Typology (cont’d) Long-term vs. short-term orientation describes the degree to which people and organizations defer gratification to achieve long-term success. Long-term orientation emphasizes the long view in planning and living, focusing on years and decades. Examples: traditional Asian cultures, such as China, Japan, and Singapore, which base these values on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (500 B.C.), who espoused long-term orientation, discipline, hard work, education, and emotional maturity. Short-term orientation is typical in the United States and most other Western countries. International Business: The New Realities 4-11
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Guanxi : Important in Business in China Refers to social connections and relationships based on mutual benefits.
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