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12. Compare the developments in the political and social institutions of both eastern and western Europe.
Western Europe:•Feudalism → Decentralized •Allied with the Church → Pope has more power Eastern Europe:•Centralized oJustinian Code → Unified law •Emperor with absolute authority oMonopolized trade (Mediterranean) •Constant conflict between emperor and pope oExcommunication of each otheroCaesaropapism-Religious and political leader SocialWestern Europe:•Stratified social structure oKing - nobles - knights - serfs (each class dependent on others) oCode of chivalry •Christianity only unifying factor in a decentralized place •Patriarchal owomen appreciated for beauty oWomen given more power than before through the code of chivalry•Self-sufficient omanors otrade developing slowly among serf class Eastern Europe:•Religious wars w/ Islamic Empire oIslamic Empire constantly trying to invade - Byzantine slowly loses land oOttomans eventually conquer Constantinople •Patriarchal •Trade important oMediterranean trade oSilk Road in use oConstantinople is a center of trade13.Compare Japanese and European Feudalism European and Japanese feudalism both used a lord and retainer system. In Japan, the lord was known as the shogun. The retainers were known as the samurai. Both had a code of conduct (chivalry, bushido). Everybody had a social role and there was security. Comparison of Feudalism in Europe and JapanEuropeJapan
Nobilityking, lord, lesser lordemperor, shogun, daimyoWarriorsknightssamuraiCode of conductchivalrybushidoEvolution•Both practices developed in response to the need for security and stability•everyone had well-defined social roles•helped preserve law and order14. Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic WorldIslamic Contacts in Sub Saharan Africa:•Islam provided a political framework for trade and diplomacy over the eastern hemisphere from Africa to Southeast Asia; many diverse lands of varied culture thus became part of dar al Islam. •Logical/natural for Muslim traders of North Africa to trade across Sahara with Sub Saharan West Arica. •Established trading centers like Gao: copper, ironware, cotton textiles, salt, grain, carnelian beads traded. •Koumbi-Saleh: capital and principal site of Ghana; many qadisand scholars lived there. •Islam in West Africa: kings of Ghana converted: led to better relations with Muslim merchants; didn't impose Islam on their society though, and continued to observe traditional religious customs (magis, idols, etc). •Mansa Musa: ruled during the high point of Mali Empire from 1312-1337. Made famous pilgrimage to Mecca: he took Islam more seriously and established religious schools and sent students to study there.