Age-related changes in the renal, urological GU system are different for men and women. In women, the turning point is menopause, when the body stops producing estrogen, leading to a cessation of the reproductive ability. In fact, estrogen levels drop by almost 95%. In addition to the decrease in estrogen production, the vaginal wall becomes thinner and loses elasticity.
Page 18 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 18 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Cryptorchidism and Testicular Cancer We will begin our discussion of the common disorders of the male renal, urological GU system with two of the pathological conditions that predominantly affect young male adults—cryptorchidism and testicular cancer. The name "cryptorchidism" comes from the words "crypto," meaning hidden, and "orchid," meaning testicles. Cryptorchidism is a disorder of the testicles, where, during embryonic development, either or both of the testes do not descend into the scrotum properly. Cryptorchidism can be unilateral, wherein one testis descends into the scrotum, or bilateral, wherein both the testes fail to descend into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism is more prevalent in the teenage patient and is typically found either during a sports examination or a general physical examination by the patient's primary care provider. This disorder is a significant risk factor for the development of testicular cancer. Factors such as premature birth and androgen sensitivity are sometimes held responsible for this disorder. All teenage male patients must be screened routinely and also educated regarding testicular examinations. Another disease that primarily affects the young male adult is testicular cancer and typically occurs between the ages of twenty and thirty-five. For the most part, the change in the testicle affected is typically gradual. The patient experiences enlargement and hardness of the testicle and/or may have an acute episode of pain following sexual intercourse. This is typically because of trauma or some form of microbleed. Otherwise, the majority of men who present with testicular cancer have painless swelling in either of the testes. It is vital that men be taught testicular self-examination in their early teens.
Page 19 of 2 NSG 6006 Pre-Specialty Evaluation ©2017 South University 19 Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 BPH and Prostatitis BPH BPH is a common disorder affecting men over the age of fifty. It is estimated that by eighty years of age, nearly 80% of all men will have some stage of BPH. The signs begin gradually, usually beginning with some form of outlet obstruction. Common symptoms include trouble getting the urine flow started, dribbling, nocturia, decreased strength of urine flow, and urgency. At first, the symptoms do not typically bother the patient but are more of a minor annoyance.
- Fall '17
- South University, Pre-Specialty Evaluation