Wash treated clothing before wearing again Wash treated skin after returning indoors If using sunscreen and repellent, sunscreen should be applied first Potential DEET-related problems : Most common: skin reactions Higher concentration = higher incidence Rash more likely with occlusion of treated area CNS reactions with improper use or ingestion seizures, hypotension, angioedema (mostly children) Greasy or sticky feel May dissolve or damage some plastics and synthetic fabrics Eyeglass frames, watches, etc. Insect Repellents – Picaridin Picaridin – alternative to DEET Less odor, less irritating to skin Deemed safe and efective when used as directed Dosage forms available: cream, aerosol, wipe 5% - 20%: highly efective against insects (mosquitoes, ticks, flies) 7% formulation in US 20% solution in Australia “essentially equivalent to DEET” Insect Repellents – Permethrin Permethrin 0.5% Contact Insecticide: repels and kills ticks, mosquitoes, chiggers and “more than 55 other kinds of insects” on contact Designed ONLY for use on clothing and equipment Previously only for military use Claims to last through 6 washes Often impregnated in clothing and mosquito netting Good for tick prevention Odorless when dry, will not stain or damage Dangerously toxic to fish, cats Other Insect Repellents Generally found to be less efective than DEET Citronella Candles only repel w/in 1 meter Topical = limited efficacy/duration of action Lemon eucalyptus oil (OFF! Botanicals Insect Repellent) Equivalent to DEET for mosquitoes (not tested for tick prevention) Scented moisturizers in mineral oil e.g.Skin-So-Soft Soybean oil (Cedar oil) Lavender oil (Tea tree oil) Garlic (Thiamin) Insect Bite Prevention – Pets Keep pets free of pests Frontline Fipronil (S)-methoprene Kills fleas and ticks Apply every 30 days
Insect Stings Hymenoptera attack victims to defend themselves or kill other insects Venom containing allergenic proteins and pharmacologically active molecules is injected Wild honeybees Western and midwestern US Nest in hollow tree trunks Barbed stinger → remains embedded in skin → continues to inject venom Bumblebees Smooth stinger, able to sting multiple times Paper wasps, hornets, yellow jackets Southern, central, and southwestern US Stinger can easily be withdrawn, sting repeatedly Wasps : nest in high places, under eaves of houses Hornets : nest in hollow spaces (esp trees) Yellow jackets : nest in low places Burrow in ground, cracks in sidewalk Most common stinging culprit Killer Bees : multiple stings per individual Increased risk for severe allergic reaction May cause death Fire Ants Found in southern and western US Live in underground colonies – form large, raised mounds Some only bite, some bite and sting simultaneously (bite = cause of reactions)
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- Fall '08
- Head louse, Pediculosis, DEET, Body louse, insect bites, permethrin