Attention is necessary in order to transfer information from sensory storage

Attention is necessary in order to transfer

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Attention is necessary in order to transfer information from sensory storage through to Working Memory, and to hold it in working memory. There are 3 main types of attention: selective attention focused attention divided attention Sanders and McCormick (1987, p64)
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Selective Attention Selective attention occurs when “…a person has to monitor several sources of information to determine whether a particular event has occurred” (Sanders & McCormick, 1987, p64) e.g. a pilot scanning instruments looking for an abnormal reading (e.g. low fuel) e.g. a driver scanning the freeway environment looking for the next exit Try this selective attention test…….
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Selective Attention Test This is an example of “inattention blindness” that can occur when we selectively attend to things in our environment. Imagine if the gorilla was a pedestrian walking across the road while you were selectively attending to all the names of streets in order to find the name of a street you need to turn left at. What could you do as a designer to ensure the driver wasn’t inattentionally blind to pedestrians?
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Focussed Attention Focused attention occurs when a person must attend to one source of information in the face of many potential sources of distraction (Wickens & McCarley, 2008). Can you think of some examples of focussed attention?
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Focussed Attention (Examples) eg when you try to read a book when someone is on the telephone eg when you try to listen to a person in a noisy restaurant eg when you try to read information on a road sign that is full of unnecessary clutter
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Divided Attention (1) Divided attention occurs when a person must attend to more than one task at a time. This is usually accomplished by timesharing alternating attention between the tasks. Humans have a limited capacity to process information so when two or more tasks have to be performed at the same time, this capacity can be exceeded If this occurs, the performance of at least one of the tasks will deteriorate.
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Divided Attention (2) It is possible, however, two perform some tasks as well together as separately in parallel in some situations. How about this !! Look what a drummer can do ? Can anyone else do it? Now try this move right leg in circular motions and write number 6 with right hand in the air. •We’ll talk about this in the next lecture.
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YouTube video varieties of attention
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Selective attention Design guidelines (1) 1. Where multiple channels of information have to be scanned to determine whether a particular event has occurred, use as few channels as possible, even if it means increasing the signal rate per channel Eg if a person in a control room has to detect 25 abnormal readings per minute, present them on one display rather than, say, 5 displays, each presenting only 5 abnormal readings per minute. 2. Provide information to the person as to the relative importance of the various information channels, so attention can be directed more effectively.
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