Guild an association formed by people pursuing the

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guild:An association formed by people pursuing the same line of work that regulated their professions; it alsoprovided a social and religious network for members.Holy Roman Empire:Term invented in the twelfth century to describe the Germany-based empire founded by Otto Iin 962 C.E.“hybrid civilization,” the West as a:The distinctive path of Western Europe in the centuries following the fall ofthe western Roman Empire, leading to a society that included elements of ancient Rome, the practices ofGermanic invaders who formed new states, Christianity, and elements of pre-Roman culture that still survived.
iconoclasm:The destruction of holy images; a term most often used to describe the Byzantine state policy of imagedestruction from 726 to 843. (pron. eye-KON-oh-klasm)indulgence:A remission of the penalty (penance) for confessed sin that could be granted only by a pope, at first toCrusaders and later for a variety of reasons.Justinian:Byzantine emperor (r. 527–565 C.E.), noted for his short-lived reconquest of much of the former westernRoman Empire and for his codification of Roman law.Kievan Rus:State that emerged around the city of Kiev in the ninth century C.E.; a culturally diverse region thatincluded Vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples. The conversion of Vladimir, the grand prince of Kiev, toOrthodox Christianity in 988 had long-term implications for Russia. (pron. key-YEV-an ROOS)natural philosophy:The scientific study of nature, which developed, especially in Europe, in the later Middle Ages.Otto I:King of Germany (r. 936–973) who built a consolidated German–northern Italian state and was crownedemperor in 962, creating what became known in time as the “Holy Roman Empire.” system of competing states:The distinctive organization of Western European political life that developed after thefall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E. in which the existence of many small, independentstates encouraged military and economic competition.Vikings:Scandinavian raiders who had an impact on much of Western Europe in the late eighth to eleventh centuries;

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