Microtubules can be found in tail of the sperm in the flagellum and in CHROMOSOMES.
o Microvilli do not move they are non motile. o Vesicular transport are organelles that Transport, examples are mitochondria, Golgi, ER. o Microtubule associated proteins (MAPS) – can bind or hold an organelle and can also attach to microtubules. Walk along it and carry something. Use energy of ATP to do this. o Ribosome’s are responsible for protein synthesis. (only thing we need to know about RIBOSOMES) o Protesome is a non membranous organelle in cytoplasm that don’t have a complete membrane. They have proteases inside of them and proteases are enzymes responsible for breaking up and digest proteins. If you have protein you want to get rid of that is not properly made or degraded than the protease that has enzymes responsible for breaking up protein into AA will get the job done. AA dumped into cytosol and cell is able to use them again. - MEMBRANOUS ORGANELLES o Rough ER has rough like appearance due to the ribosomes attached to its surface. Rough ER functions to continue protein synthesis. Ribosome binds to rough ER shoving protein into it and the protein furthers maturation. Protein properly folds and the PROTEIN BECOMES FUNCTIONAL. o Protein synthesis does not occur in Smooth ER . Lipid synthesis occurs in smooth ER. Liver cells use smooth ER to detoxify drugs like alcohol. Smooth ER is specialized in muscle/nervous cells to store calcium. o Golgi apparatus , modifies proteins that come from Rough ER. Can add functional groups and carbohydrates further modifying. Anything that goes from Rough ER to Golgi is destined to leave the cell. o When you make protein in Rough ER that protein is destined to leave the cell. When you make a protein just in cytosol with a free ribosome is destined to stay in cell –called a cytosolic protein. o Golgi forms vesicles called primary lysosomes which have a pH of about 5 in inside and contain hydrolytic enzymes they are considered garbage disposal of cells. o ENDOCYTOSIS Enzymes in primary lysosomes are inactive to start and have to fuse with something to become activated. Substance (large particle) from out of cell being internalized as part of plasma membrane that pinches off and forms an endocytotic vesicle. The cell is forming invagination of plasma membrane and eventually it pinches off containing the substance inside. This endocytotic vesicle fuses with primary lysosome and form a secondary lysosome – hydrolytic enzymes are now activated and whatever is inside the lysosome is degraded. The degraded material may be stuff the cell wanted…possible AA of protein that can be reused. o EXOCYTOSIS Cell vesicle now moves towards plasma membrane and reverses the process. Vesicle opens into plasma membrane, attaches and releases material.