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4.Deviance lies not just in behavior itself but also in the social responses of groups to behavior by othersANOMIE – the condition existing when social regulations (norms) in society break down; not anindividual’s state of mind, but the social conditions.DEVIENT CAREER – continuing to be labeled as deviant even after the initial deviance may have ceased
DEVIENT COMMUNITIES – deviance within a group context; some groups are organized around particular forms of social deviance – they maintain their own values, norms, and rewards for deviant behavior (i.e. skinheads, gangs, hookers)SOCIAL CONTROL – process by which groups and individuals within those groups are broughtinto conformity with dominant social expectations COST OF CRIME (elite vs. street crime) – Elite crime may be as high as $200 billion per year opposed to street crimes that total out at about $15 billion.MEDICALIZATION OF DEVIENCE –attributes deviant behavior to a “sick” state of mind where the solution is to “cure” the deviant through therapy or other psychological treatment (i.e. alcoholism viewed as a sickness instead of a crime)PONZI SCHEME – a con-gamewhereby a central person collects money from a large number ofpeople, including friends and relatives, and then promises to invest their dollars with a high rate of interest for them. Madoff promised a 10% rate of annual return – however the money was never invested at all, instead it was used to pay off earlier investors. This is the key principle of aPonzi scheme.Chapter eight.CLASS CONCIOUSNESS – the perception that a class structure exists along with a feeling a shared identification with others in one’s class.FALSE CONCIOUSNESS – used to describe the class consciousness of subdominant classes who had internalized the view of the dominant class (Marx)
ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING – refers to the decline of manufacturing jobs in the United States, the transformation of the economy by technological change, and the process of globalization.SOCIAL CLASS – the social structural position that groups hold relative to the economic, social,political, and cultural resources. SOCIAL MOBILITY – a person’s movement over time from one class to anotherFEMINZATION OF POVERTY – refers to the large proportion of the poor who are women and childrenCULTURE OF POVERTY – attributes the major causes of poverty to the absence of work valuesand the irresponsibility of the poorIDEOLOGY – refers to belief systems that supports the status quoSOCIAL STRATIFICATION – is a system of structured social inequality; relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth.MERITOCRACY – a system in which one’s status is based on merit or accomplishments, not other social characteristics.