The study can either be simple where data are collected from one group over one

The study can either be simple where data are

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interventions are being introduced. The study can either be simple, where data are collected from one group over one period of time; comparative, data are collected on two or more groups of variables over one period of time; longitudinal, data are collected from one group of variables over two or more periods of time; or cross-sectional, data are collected from whatever groups from one period of time (Helbig, 2018). A study by Alloubani et al. (2019) is an example of a non-experimental study where they analyzed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency, diabetes, and obesity. The design of this study was a cross-sectional and correlational design and used a convenience sampling of 350 participants. Within this study, participants were not given any new medications or treatments and were simply observed over a period of time. The study revealed that certain factors increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency, among which are lifestyle choices, diet, and that this population would benefit from a screening of risk factors and education on how to enhance dietary vitamin D intake to improve outcomes.
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