Social Interaction Impairments Limited interest in peers difficulty with play

Social interaction impairments limited interest in

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Social Interaction Impairments Limited interest in peers – difficulty with play skills, difficulty making friends Impaired nonverbal behaviors - eye contact, facial expressions, body posture Lack of shared enjoyment in interactions Limited social reciprocity Theory of Mind deficits – difficulty understanding that other people have a different point of reference (e.g., different knowledge, experiences)
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Social Interaction Impairments VIDEO OF NONRESPONSIVENESS TO SOCIAL INTERACTION
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Stereotyped Behaviors,  Interests, and Activities Repetitive behaviors – flapping hands, spinning objects Rigidity and insistence on sameness – placement of toys in room or furniture in house, routes traveled to school or work, adherence to daily routines Circumscribed interests – intense interest in a certain topic or activity Sensory self-stimulation – e.g., rubbing certain textures, seeking firm touches, looking at lights, sniffing objects, rocking
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Stereotyped Behavior and Interest VIDEO OF REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR/INTEREST
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Associated Characteristics Cognitive impairments – 50-75% in intellectual disability range (IQ < 70) Self-injurious behaviors – e.g., head banging, skin picking, biting self May be sensory seeking or can result from frustration related to communication deficits Isolated, highly specialized skills (“savant abilities”) – exceptional skill in a certain area, but only seen in some individuals (e.g., Rain Man) Motor coordination difficulties
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Diagnosing ASD DSM-IV-TR (as noted in the textbook) outlined criteria for several different disorders listed as Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Autism, Asperger’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, PDD-NOS DSM-5 groups all categories into one diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder with a chart to rate the severity of symptoms (no longer using term Pervasive Developmental Disorder) Symptoms summarized into two major categories: Social Communication and Social Interaction Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
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Diagnosing ASD Criterion A - Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, including deficits in all 3 of: Social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect) Nonverbal communication (e.g., abnormalities in eye contact and body language, deficits in understanding and use of gesture and facial expressions) Relationships (e.g., difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; absence of interest in peers)
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Diagnosing ASD, cont. Criterion B - Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, such as (at least 2): Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys, echolalia) Insistence on sameness, routines (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions) Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g., adverse response to specific sounds or textures,
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Diagnosing ASD, cont.
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