Social Interaction Impairments • Limited interest in peers – difficulty with play skills, difficulty making friends • Impaired nonverbal behaviors - eye contact, facial expressions, body posture • Lack of shared enjoyment in interactions • Limited social reciprocity • Theory of Mind deficits – difficulty understanding that other people have a different point of reference (e.g., different knowledge, experiences)
Social Interaction Impairments VIDEO OF NONRESPONSIVENESS TO SOCIAL INTERACTION
Stereotyped Behaviors, Interests, and Activities • Repetitive behaviors – flapping hands, spinning objects • Rigidity and insistence on sameness – placement of toys in room or furniture in house, routes traveled to school or work, adherence to daily routines • Circumscribed interests – intense interest in a certain topic or activity • Sensory self-stimulation – e.g., rubbing certain textures, seeking firm touches, looking at lights, sniffing objects, rocking
Stereotyped Behavior and Interest • VIDEO OF REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR/INTEREST
Associated Characteristics • Cognitive impairments – 50-75% in intellectual disability range (IQ < 70) • Self-injurious behaviors – e.g., head banging, skin picking, biting self • May be sensory seeking or can result from frustration related to communication deficits • Isolated, highly specialized skills (“savant abilities”) – exceptional skill in a certain area, but only seen in some individuals (e.g., Rain Man) • Motor coordination difficulties
Diagnosing ASD • DSM-IV-TR (as noted in the textbook) outlined criteria for several different disorders listed as Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Autism, Asperger’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, PDD-NOS • DSM-5 groups all categories into one diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder with a chart to rate the severity of symptoms (no longer using term Pervasive Developmental Disorder) • Symptoms summarized into two major categories: • Social Communication and Social Interaction • Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
Diagnosing ASD • Criterion A - Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, including deficits in all 3 of: • Social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect) • Nonverbal communication (e.g., abnormalities in eye contact and body language, deficits in understanding and use of gesture and facial expressions) • Relationships (e.g., difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; absence of interest in peers)
Diagnosing ASD, cont. • Criterion B - Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, such as (at least 2): • Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys, echolalia) • Insistence on sameness, routines (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions) • Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus • Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interests in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g., adverse response to specific sounds or textures,
Diagnosing ASD, cont.
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