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3.To meet the requirements of a set curriculum (e.g. ECZ, UNZA etc)4.To meet students’ motivational needs.108
Most importantly, from a teaching point of view we assess learners for the followingreasons1.DiagnosisEstablish entry behaviourDiagnose learning difficulties2.FeedbackFeedback to students on their progressDiagnose strengths and areas for developmentReinforce learningFeedback to the teachersMotivate students3.Standards1.Maintain standards2.Certificate achievement3.Facilitate progression4.Predict future performance/selection5.Qualify as “safe to practice” e.g. doctor, nurse, driver etc.6.Data for quality assuranceOther complementary reasons for assessing are that we assess for:1.Mastery2.increasing the motivation of learners.3.Prediction of an individual’s potential4.diagnosis of learning5.diagnosis of teaching109
6.Evidence of competence or attainment7.Certification, classification and comparison with other learnersAssessing for whom?1.Assessing for learners2.Assessing for teachers3.Assessing for outsidersLearners can be assessed both informally and formally.In informal assessment, teachers can observe learners and in the same manner studentsobserve their teachers and judgments are made. Whereas in formal assessmentactivities and schedules for assessment are planned, i.e. timetables are set, learners areinformed that they are being or will be assessed, results are said to have a particularpurpose which is usually known by both learners and teachers.Formative and summative assessment(Often used in the context of evaluation)Formative – continuous assessment using the results to facilitate learningSummative assessing is more focused on using the results for some external reasons,perhaps deciding whether or not a particular learner may be allowed to continue with acourse of study or had achieved the required competences. It may come at the end ofthe course or phase,FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TECHNQUESQuestion and answerSupply type questionsSelection type questions110
ProjectsAssignmentsEssaysPractical testsSUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUESEnd examinationsSupply type questionsSelection type questionsProjectsAssignmentsEssaysPractical examinationsUSES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT RESULTSTeachers for ensuring that learning has taken placeTeachers for improving methods of instructionStudents to gain an idea of their successUSES OF SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT RESULTSEmployers for job selectionCurriculum developers for curriculum reviewExamining/validating bodies for award of grades and diplomas/certificatesStudents for selecting courses of higher study.