Lecture 7 Guide

People get vaccinated so they do not transmit the

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People get vaccinated so they do not transmit the virus to others, which is herd immunity. 16. What are interferons? Interferons are these molecules that leave an infected cell to warn other cells of a virus that was present in another cell. This creates an antiviral protein in the other cell to protect them from the virus. 17. What are some factors that play a role allowing a viral infection to persist? • Integration of DNA • Immune tolerance including immunosuppression • Formation of virus–antibody complexes that remains infective • Location • Rapid antigenic variation • Spread from cell to cell without an extracellular phase 18. How does a plaque assay work? Start with test tubes with dilutions of the virus, and then use an agar gel to detect where the virus sticks to in the medium. 19. What are the benefits and disadvantages of “live “ and killed vaccines? See chart on page 29 of the lecture. 20. Why is there such a difference in the pathogenesis of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses even though they are both members of picornaviridae? Enteroviruses is replicated at the oropharynx, and the rhinoviruses replicate in upper respiratory tract. 21. Describe the genetic material of the poliovirus. How are proteins made? A single strand positive RNA strand makes proteins 22. Describe the pathogenesis of a polio infection.
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It spreads by fecal to oral, primary replication in respiratory or GI tract, spreads to other sites, main tissue tropism CNS, motor neurons are destroyed 23. Does infection always cause clinical disease? Yes, only 90% of infections are asymptomatic and pathogenic. 24. What are the three types of disease caused by the poliovirus? -Abortive poliomyeliytis -Aseptic meningitis (nonparalytic poliomyelitis) -Paralytic poliomyelitis (paralysis without sensation) 25. Rhinovirus does not cause significant cell damage. Why are we so miserable when we have a cold?
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Lecture 8 Guide 1. What are some major differences between influenza A and B? 2. What are some distinguishing clinical differences between a cold and the flu? 3. Describe the influenza life cycle including its morphology and genetic content. 4. Distinguish between gentic drift and genetic shift. How does each occur? 5. Why are pigs considered good “mixers” for influenza viruses? 6. Describe the evolution of the flu strain that lead to the recent H1N1 outbreak? 7. Why did this strain lead to a pandemic? 8. What are some of the viral proteins, processes or pathways targeted by antivirals?
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People get vaccinated so they do not transmit the virus to...

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