Courts and prisons represent the main types of formal

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(courts and prisons represent the main types of formal sanctions in modern society) Incarceration Rates have increased dramatically- 80% of them being non white in the last 20 years Gov’t definition of poverty - " poverty threshold " set by the U.S. government . This measure recognizes poverty as a lack of those goods and services commonly taken for granted by members of mainstream society Life Chances - the opportunities each individual has to improve his or her quality of life and the ownership of property and the disposal over goods and services in the marketplace, which are outcomes of the distribution of power in society, determine the ‘chance’ to realize an individual's goals in social action. social mobility , or progression from one social level to another A functionalist view of stratification views stratification as necessary for a society to function efficiently which enables it to reach its full potential economically and socially. Functionalists view society as a set of interconnected parts which work together to form a whole social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and wealth within a society . structural functionalism , which interprets society as a structure with interrelated parts. Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms , customs , traditions and institutions Robert Merton has developed four categories of people in regard to prejudice and discrimination: unprejudiced non-discriminatory unprejudiced discriminator prejudiced non-discriminatory prejudiced discriminator prejudice is a prejudgment: i.e. a preconceived belief, opinion, or judgment made without ascertaining the facts of a case gender polarization as the idea that there are only two mutually exclusive sexes that correspond with two opposite genders, resulting in the belief that there are only "manly men" and "girly girls" and nothing in between Gender-schematic , or sex-typed, individuals are those who view the world largely from a gendered point of view, bifurcating society into female and male components
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Christopher Reinemann
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