before utilizing these drugs for COVID 19 pneumonia patients efficacy and

Before utilizing these drugs for covid 19 pneumonia

This preview shows page 27 - 29 out of 76 pages.

before utilizing these drugs for COVID-19 pneumonia patients, efficacy and safety studies should be conducted by further clinical trials. Although a controlled trial of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and interferon-alpha 2b therapy has been registered for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (ChiCTR2000029308) (188). Besides, the use of hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab and their potential role in modulating inflammatory response in the lungs, in addition to the potential of antiviral of the first, has been proposed and discussed in multiple papers, but so far, not available good-quality clinical trials have been published (263-277). Shortly, evidence will be available regarding the use of these drugs. Recently, also, a clinical Preprints () | NOT PEER-REVIEWED | Posted: 13 April 2020 doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0001.v2
Image of page 27
27 trial was published showing the comparison of lopinavir/ritonavir versus standard case but showed that in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care (278). The guidance to the control of the COVID-19 infection might be based on the existing measures for MERS and SARS and with some further precautions because of the widely unknown nature of this new coronavirus (36, 189). Currently, the primary treatment strategy, such as mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and symptomatic and supportive care, are commonly recommended for severe cases. Furthermore, RNA synthesis inhibitors (like 3TC, TDF), remdesivir, neuraminidase inhibitors, peptide (EK1), anti-inflammatory drugs, abidol, Chinese traditional medicine, such as Lianhuaqingwen and ShuFengJieDu Capsules, could be the promising drug treatment for COVID-19 (7). However, further clinical trials are required for confirming their safety and efficacy in managing the COVID-19 infection. The major limiting factor in the quest for identifying an ideal vaccine or therapeutic agent is time. It may take months to even several years for researchers to develop, produce, standardize, evaluate, approve, and commercialize specific therapeutic agents against COVID-19 infection. Hence, our current efforts should be directed towards identifying and evaluating therapeutic drugs/immunotherapeutic agents that have proven efficacy against viral agents that are similar toCOVID-19. The time required for a drug discovery program to develop, evaluate, and obtain approval for a new potent antiviral agent against COVID-19 should take more than ten years (9). In the present scenario, the development of a new therapeutic agent against COVID-19 is not a feasible option for the available time. The COVID-19 patients showing severe signs are treated symptomatically along with oxygen therapy. In cases where the patients progress to respiratory failure and become refractory to oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation is initiated. The COVID-19 induced septic shock can be managed by providing adequate hemodynamic support (304). Several classes of drugs are currently being evaluated for their potential therapeutic action against SARS-CoV-2. However, therapeutic agents that are having anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity can be
Image of page 28
Image of page 29

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture