Sales tests involve studies such as controlled

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sales tests involve studies such as controlled experiments (e.g., using radio ads in one market and newspaper ads in another and comparing the results) and consumer purchase tests (measuring retail sales that result from a given advertising campaign). The most sophisticated experimental methods today allow a manufacturer, a distributor, or an advertising agency to manipulate an advertising variable (such as schedule or copy) through cable systems and observe subsequent sales effects by monitoring data collected from checkout scanners in supermarkets. Three main types of PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENT: Pioneering (or informal) Competitive (or persuasive) Reminder (or reinforcement) Pioneering (or informational)...tells people what the product is, what it can do, and where it can be found. Competitive (or persuasive). Comparative advertising is a form of competitive advertising. -The objective is to persuade the target market to select the firm's brand rather than that of a competitor. An increasingly common form of competitive advertising is comparative advertising, which shows one brand's strengths relative to those of competitors. Comparative ads are effective, but you better be able to back up your claims.
Reminder - It is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product. types of INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENT The objective of institutional advertisements is to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service. Often this form of advertising is used to support the public relations plan or counter adverse publicity. Four alternative forms of institutional advertisements are often used: -advocacy -pioneering institutional -competitive institutional -Reminder Institutional Advocacy advertisements state the position of a company on an issue. Chevron places ads encouraging consumers to use less energy. IBM is using advocacy ads to tell people how they are "helping to build a smarter planet." Another form of advocacy advertisement is used when organizations make a request related to a particular action or behavior, such as a request by American Red Cross for blood donations. Pioneering institutional advertisements, like the pioneering ads for products discussed earlier, are used for announcements about what a company is, what it can do, or where it is located. Recent Bayer ads stating, "We cure more headaches than you think," are intended to inform consumers that the company produces many products in addition to aspirin. Amway uses pioneering institutional ads in its "Know You Know" campaign to inform people about the company and its products.
Competitive institutional advertisements promote the advantages of one product class over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers. America's milk processors and dairy farmers use their "Got Milk?" campaign to increase demand for milk as it competes against other beverages.

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