Official organizational systems that had a

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official organizational systems that had a significant effect on the workers. There was a greater pressure to reach unofficial group goals than official group goals. It was more common to think of oneself as a member of a team rather than just an individual working in the organization when dealing with management. The importance of “noneconomic incentives” as a means of motivation.
Chester Barnard: o J. M. Shafritz & A. C. Hyde The important role of informal organizations within formal organizations. o M. E. Milakovich & G. J. Gordon Top management could not unilaterally exercise their authority, management had to rely on the support of those under them. Abraham Maslow:
o J. M. Shafritz & A. C. Hyde Hierarchy of needs: physiological needs (air, water, food, etc.); safety needs (personal security, employment, resources, etc.); love and belonging (friendship, intimacy, family, etc.); esteem (respect, self-esteem, recognition, etc.); and self-actualization (the desire to reach one’s full potential). How does this organizational theory school of thought differ from the classical and neoclassical schools of thought?
In your opinion, which school of thought is most applicable for public and/or nonprofit organizations and why?

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