Course Hero Logo

Presentation phase 1 within minutes cholinergic and

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 14 - 17 out of 27 pages.

PresentationPhase 1 (within minutes): Cholinergic and adrenergic.Pain at bite sitePerioral tinglingPiloerection (goosebumps)Fasciculations which may progress to overt muscle spasmsCholinergic + adrenergic crisis: tachycardia, hypertension,arrhythmias, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, gastricdilation, diaphoresis, pupil asymmetry, lacrimation, salivation,pulmonary oedema, ALOCPhase 2:Resolution of cholinergic + adrenergic crisisIf untreated: may have gradual onset of refractory hypotension,apnoea and cardiac arrestManagementPIBIV fluids as indicated to manage hypoperfusionOxygenVentilation assistance as neededCCP backup → atropine to manage secretionsRapid transport and prenotification → antivenom available
Blue-ringed octopusPathophysiologyThe blue ringed octopus envenomation involves tetrodotoxin, a potentneurotoxin that causes motor paralysis due to the blockade ofneuronal sodium channels, which play a vital role in the initiation andpropagation of neuronal action potentials. This leads to muscularparalysis, which can be fatal within 30 minutes of envenomation.Tetrodotoxin is secreted in the saliva of the blue-ringed octopus.PresentationPainless envenomationNumbness of lips and tongueRespiratory difficultyParalysis of respiratory musclesManagementPIBRespiratory supportNo antivenom availableCone fish/snails/shellsPathophysiologyCone shells are a type of snail that envenomate their victims withconotoxin. Conotoxin is a potent neurotoxin, which acts on a widerange of targets including ion channels, enzymes and transporters.Conotoxin causes numbness, tingling, and the paralysis of respiratorymuscles.PresentationPainless envenomationNumbness of lips and tongueRespiratory difficultyParalysis of respiratory musclesManagementPIBRespiratory supportNo antivenom availableTetanus shot at hospitalRed back bite+ white tail biteBees, wasps, antsParalysis tickBox jellyfishPathophys
The toxic components of venoms act directly on muscle and nervetissue.The specific venom components are still being identified. They arethought to affect sodium and calcium channels leading to abnormalmembrane ion transport. The nematocysts continue to sting until taken off theskin and deactivated or neutralized by vinegar.PresentationStings are associated with immediate severe pain, typically lasting up to 8hours, and linear welts, which characteristically occur in a crosshatchedpatternIn 25-30% of cases the jellyfish tentacles are still adherentSystemic envenoming is heralded by collapse or sudden death within a fewminutes of the stingCardiovascular effects include hypertension, hypotension, tachycardia,impaired cardiac contraction and arrhythmiasDelayed hypersensitivity reactions occur in at least 50% of patients andmanifest as pruritic erythema at the original sting site, 7-14 days after thesting.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 27 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
One
Professor
N/A
Tags
Blood sugar, Bowel obstruction, The Grave,

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture