Lecture7-LongTermMemory-3.pptx

Single fact irrelevant facts relevant 94 62 45 73

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Single Fact Irrelevant Facts Relevant Facts 92% 80% 94% 62% 45% 73% Immediate recall Recall after one week Much better recall for relevant facts one week after initial learning Recall Performance in Anderson’s Interference/Redundancy Study 11
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Activation of information in long-term memory tends also to activate related types of information through the spreading of activation ( associative priming ). This spreading of activation is unconscious and does not typically require attention. 12
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Meyer and Schvaneveldt’s Study of Associative Priming Participants were shown pairs of items, such as: Nurse Butter Reab Butter Participants responded as quickly as possible , saying “yes” if both items were words and “no” if either one or both items were nonwords . or 13
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Positive Pairs Negative Pairs Unrelated Related Nonword Second Both Nonwords Nurse Butter 940 ms Bread Butter 855 ms Plame Wine 904 ms Wine Plame 1087 ms Plame Reab 884 ms Nonword First Results From Meyer and Schvaneveldt Study (“yes” = correct response) (“no” = correct response) 14
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Positive Pairs Negative Pairs Unrelated Related Nonword Second Both Nonwords Nurse Butter 940 ms Bread Butter 855 ms Plame Wine 904 ms Wine Plame 1087 ms Plame Reab 884 ms Nonword First Results From Meyer and Schvaneveldt Study Faster reaction time resulted from the spreading of activation from “bread” (read first) to “butter” (read second). (“yes” = correct response) (“no” = correct response) 15
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Meyer and Schvaneveldt’s results demonstrate that spreading activation can enhance the strength of memories related to the one(s) being directly activated. 16
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Besides moment-to-moment activation level, a long-term memory’s strength (called long-term potentiation , or LTP) also determines how likely it is that it can be recalled. Memory strength is a direct function of practice . 17
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Strengthening Memories Through Practice Recognition Time (seconds) Days of Practice How does our reaction time to recognize a previously learned sentence improve with practice? 18
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What else besides practice can we do to increase the strength of our memories? 19
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What else besides practice can we do to increase the strength of our memories? What about elaborating our memories? 20
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Stein & Branford’s Study of Elaborative Processing - Participants were presented with sentences like: The tall man read the sign. Four Conditions : (1) Participants simply read each sentence. (2) Participants were instructed to generate an elaboration of the sentence. (3) The experimenter presented an imprecise elaboration of the sentence (e.g., “The tall man read the sign that was two feet tall.”). (4) The experimenter presented a precise elaboration of the sentence (e.g., “The tall man read the sign warning about the ice.”). 21
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Recall Performance in Stein & Branford’s Study Condition: Base Participant- Generated Imprecise Elaboration Precise Elaboration Experimenter- Generated 42% 58% 22% 78% 22
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Recall Performance in Stein & Branford’s Study Condition: Base Participant- Generated Imprecise Elaboration Precise Elaboration Experimenter- Generated 42% 58% 22% 78% Participants did best when the experimenter provided precise elaborations , but also did quite well when they generated the elaborations.
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