Cones send info to retinal ganglion cells that

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Cones send info to retinal ganglion cells that respond to pairs of colors (R-G, B-Y, black-white) Specialized cells that info from cones & computes difference btwn 2 colors o Color blindness results from issues w/ cones or retinal ganglion involved in color vision Audition – ability to process auditory stimuli, also called hearing o Sound waves – changes in air pressure, physical stimulus for audition People can get a large amount of information from basic qualities of sound waves o Amplitude or intensity – loudness of a stimulus, higher amplitude results in louder sounds o Pitch – frequency of sound waves, higher frequency sounds are higher pitches o Timbre – quality of sound, tells us difference btwn bright and dull sounds as well as instruments Sound waves must reach our inner ear for us to sense sound waves o Sound waves are funneled by pinna into auditory canal Pinna – outermost portion of ear, Auditory canal – tube running from outer ear to middle ear o Sound waves eventually reach tympanic membrane which vibrates against the 3 smallest bones in body Tympanic membrane – thin stretched membrane in middle ear that vibrates, aka eardrum 3 smallest bones in body is malleus (hammer, incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup) Ossicles –3 small bones in middle ear that vibrate against tympanic membrane o Tympanic membrane and ossicles amplify sound waves before they enter cochle Cochlea – spiral bone structure in inner ear w/ auditory hair cells Auditory hair cells – receptors in cochlea that transduce sounds into electrical potentials o Humans can normally detect sounds between 20 Hz and 20 kHz Sound waves are converted into electrical message inside cochlea o Humans can reliably locate something based on which ear receives the sound first Electrical signals processed by auditory hair cells are sent through cochlear nerve to thalamus o Signals then go to primary auditory cortex in temporal lobe Primary auditory cortex – area of cortex involved in processing auditory stimuli o Tonotopic organization of cochlea is maintained in primary auditory cortex Inner ear is associated w/ out ability to balance and detect where we are in space o Vestibular system – parts of the inner ear involved in balance o Vestibular system consists of 3 semicircular canals – fluid-filled bone structure w/ sells that respond to changes in head’s orientation in space
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Info from vestibular system is sent thru vestibular nerve to muscles involved in movement of eyes, neck, etc Disturbances in vestibular system can result in issues w/ balance like vertigo Skin – body’s largest organ, provides us with all sorts of information for touch o Somatosensation – ability to sense touch, pain, and temperature o Somatosensation transduces physical stimuli into electrical potentials that can processed by the brain Tactile stimuli – stimuli associated w/ texture, transduced by mechanoreceptors o Mechanoreceptors – mechanical sensory receptors in skin that respond to tactile stimulation o After stimuli are converted by mechanoreceptors, info is sent through thalamus to primary somatosensory cortex for more processing
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  • Spring '08
  • YOUNG
  • Psychology, primary auditory cortex, stimuli

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