Dont want self serving admissions offered by party

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Don't want self-serving admissions offered by party who made statement. 12
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3. Party's Own Statement  - Rule 801(d)(2)(A) a. Requirements - Party's own statement, in individual or representative capacity. b. Lack of Personal Knowledge OK - does not matter if person lacked personal  knowledge.  If admitted it, it will be admissible.  (p.203, n.1) c. Drunk - if D drunk, prior admission still allowed.  (p. 203, n.4) d. Injured and Hospitalized - If party is this, prior still allowed. (p. 203, n.5) e. Asleep - not clear.  Probably not allowed.  (p. 204, n.6) f. Minor - not clear. Probably depends on age. g. Confessions to police when injured or incapacitated- usually excluded. (p. 205, n.7) h. Doesn't matter if statement is or is not in interest of declarant.   i. GUILTY PLEA AND SUBSEQUENT CIVIL SUIT - usually allowed to prove  liability. (p.206) But admission of traffic violation usually not allowed for subsequent civil suit b/c  this is inefficient.  Many state statutes say just because pay fine or plead guilty does  not mean you admit guilt. Maybe paid b/c did not want to bother with it.  (p. 206)   No collateral estoppel problem b/c proof is higher in crim. trial than civil trial. j. CONFESSION OF CODEFENDANT - Confession of CoD at joint trial should not  be admitted to convict D even with jury instruction.  Danger of using confession  against D too great.  Bruton v. U.S.  (p. 207)  Criticized b/c now cannot have joint  trials which wastes ct's resources.  Answer may be to have two juries. Confession of coD ok if it is harmless error.  Bruton doctrine only for criminal trials. 4. Adopted Statement  - Rule 801(d)(2)(B) a. Requirements - statement which party has manifested an adoption or belief in its  truth.  PARTY OPPONENT DOESN'T NEED PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE TO  ADOPT. i. P - Make sure party heard statement ii. P - Matter asserted was within party's knowledge iii. P - Occasion and nature of statement such that party would have likely have  replied if he did not mean to accept what was said. No Adoption if: iv. D- Party did not understand statement or its significance v. D - D prevented from replying vi. D - D ignored W vii. D - statement made by police during custodial interrogation.  (p.219) b. SILENCE  i. Can be adoption  - If statement made in front of D by W and he does not deny it  and person to whom it was admitted had knowledge of underlying facts of  admission, ct can assume that he adopted this admission.  U.S. v. Hoosier  (p.  216)  Fact that girlfriend made admission of robbing bank in front of D and D  13
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said nothing to W who knew of plan to rob bank, viewed by ct as adoption.  
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