Reactants a Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 b Oxygen O 2 4 Products a Carbon dioxide CO 2

Reactants a glucose c 6 h 12 o 6 b oxygen o 2 4

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3. Reactants a. Glucose - C6H12O6b. Oxygen - O2 4. Products a. Carbon dioxide - CO 2 b. Water - H 2 O c. ATP - adenosine triphosphate 5. Overall equation of cellular respiration (aerobic) enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 ----------> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + 36 ATP 5-3
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B. Types 1. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION - doesn't require oxygen 2. AEROBIC RESPIRATION - requires oxygen C. GLYCOLYSIS 1. First stage of respiration; occurs outside the mitochondria 2. Does not require oxygen. 3. Glucose broken down into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid 4. Requires two molecules of ATP to supply activation energy 5. Produces four molecules of ATP; net gain of two ATP's 6. Pyruvic acid can go in one of two directions - depends on type of organism and availability of oxygen D. Aerobic Phase 1. Divided into two major reactions a. Citric acid cycle (Krebs Cycle) b. Electron Transport Chain 2. CITRIC ACID CYCLE 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN a. Involves a series of electron acceptors b. Accepts electrons and hydrogen ions from NADH c. 24 hydrogen atoms produce 24 electrons and 24 hydrogen ions form 12 pairs of hydrogen ions and 12 pairs of electrons d. Near end of chain 12 molecules of hydrogen bond with 6 oxygen molecules to produce 12 molecules of water. e. 34 molecules of ATP produced E. Summary of ATP production in aerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis 2 ATP 2. Citric Acid Cycle 2 ATP 3. Electron Transport 32 ATP 4. Total 36 ATP F. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION 1. Occurs when cell obtains energy from breakdown of food molecules in the absence of oxygen 2. Also known as FERMENTATION 3. First process is similar to aerobic respiration - glucose converted to pyruvic acid - glycolysis 4. Types of Fermentation a. Alcoholic Fermentation b. Lactic Acid Fermentation 5. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION a. Pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol - can't enter the citric acid cycle. b. Most of the energy is still stored in the alcohol. c. Summary equation enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 ----------> 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 CO 2 + 2 ATP glucose ethyl alcohol carbon energy dioxide d. Industries that depend on alcoholic fermentation 1) Baking - carbon dioxide; makes bread rise. 2) Brewing - ethyl alcohol in alcoholic beverages 5-4
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6. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION a. Occurs in muscle tissue especially during heavy exercise b. Blood can't bring oxygen fast enough; lactic acid builds up causing soreness (cramps); muscles go into oxygen debt. c. Summary equation enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 -----------> 2 CH 3 CHOHCOOH + 2 ATP glucose lactic acid energy 5-5
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