Indirect fighting to assert personal goals w/o open conflict ● Cooperative ○ Benefit relationship ○ Serve mutual goals ○ Produce solutions benefiting both parties ○ Compromise ■ Middle ground ○ Collaborating ■ Focus on issue ■ Probing questions ■ Use disclosure, devils advocate ■ Address underlying needs for a win-win
Reconciliation ■ Apology ● Admit wrongdoing, taking responsibility for your role in conflict ■ Forgiveness ● Letting go, moving forward with life, away from conflict Ch. 10: Communicating in Groups A group is a collection of more than two people who ● Share some kind of relationship ● Communicate in an interdependent fashion ● Collaborate toward a shared purpose Characteristics of a group ● Shared Identity - Identify as a part of a group ● Common Goals - Specific or General ● Interdependent Relationships - Behavior of member affecting the behavior for each members. Types of Groups ● Primary Groups ○ Family & Friends ● Support Groups ○ Address personal problems while benefiting from the support of others with similar issues ● Social Groups ○ Offer relationship opportunities ● Problem-solving Groups ○ Address specific problems, Specific mission ● Study Groups ○ Task-oriented, made to help one another prepare for the exam ● Teams ○ Task-oriented & goal-driven ■ Slightly different than study groups. Broader goals
■ Work together to carry out projects or compete against other teams ● Self-directed Work Teams ○ Skilled workers who accomplish high-quality finished work ○ Manage their schedules, buy equipment, set standards for productivity, quality and costs. Models of Group Development ● Model ○ Forming Stage ■ Determine who will be in charge ■ Define group’s goal ○ Storming Stage ■ Determine what roles members will play ■ Deal with conflicts ○ Norming ■ Establish agreed norms governing expectations ■ Norms are recurring patterns of behavior or thinking that come to be accepted in a group as the “usual” way ○ Performing ■ Working together to achieve goals and overcome hurdles ○ Adjourning ■ Members reflect on accomplishments & failures ■ Termination ritual ● Reflecting/ final get together ○ Punctuated Equilibrium Model ■ Group experience period of inertia or inactivity until they become aware of time, pressure, a looming deadline ■ Members are then compelled to take action Complexity of Group Communication ● Larger Groups ○ Formal interactions ○ Limited opportunities for individual contributions ○ Less intimate communication ○ More time-consuming interactions ○ More complex relationships ○ Emergence of cliques (coalitions) ○ Development of countercoalitions ○ Occurence of social ostracism ■ Exclusion of a member or group entirely ● Social Loafing ○ Failing to invest the same level of effort in the group that they would pt in if they were working alone or with one other person ○ Affects both participation and communication in groups
○ Prevent Social Loafing: ■ Establish objectives & performance goals ■ Establish individual accountability ■ Encourage team identity & ownership ■ Stay in contact
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- Summer '21
- Clyde Remmo
- Nonverbal Communication, partner