# 5 no through examination of glacial ice core samples

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5. No, through examination of glacial ice core samples, scientists know that the structure and composition of the Earth’s atmosphere has not changed significantly through human history. 7. The tires would be wider, so that the pressure exerted by the vehicle is lower. 9. Since atmospheric pressure drops at higher altitudes, the air inside the bag expands to a larger volume at this lower external pressure. Book questions to complete: pages 272 274, # 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 20 23, 27.

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11. Use Boyle’s la w. V = 0.000359 L 12. Use Charles’ law. V = 2.35 L 15. On a cold day, the soccer ball may feel “mushy” because as the temperature of the air inside the ball drops, its pressure will drop. 16. a. Use Gay- Lussac’s law. At a temperature of 900 K, the tank will burst. b. At 1275 K, the tank will burst 1275 K > 900 K. 18. a. A smaller volume means the particles collide with the sides of the container more frequently, so the pressure goes up. b. If held at a constant volume, a higher temp means the gas particles are moving faster, so they collide more frequently and more forcefully with the sides of the container. Both of these factors will increase the pressure. c. Filled balloons go “flat” because there are very small holes in the balloon that the gas particles eventually escape through. Gas particles are in constant motion, and eventually find those small holes. d. Helium is a smaller, lighter molecule than the average molecule found in air, so its speed is higher and therefore helium balloons go “flat” faster. 20. 21. 22. a. b.
23. a. The total gas volume would decrease, because you started with 4 total moles of reactants, and produced 2 total moles of products. Fewer moles means fewer liters. b. c. 27. Since we are looking at a change in density, we need to look at changes in both mass and volume. The 100 grams sample size doesn’t change when we heat it, so the mass doesn’t change as a result of the heating. What about the volu me? Charles’ law tells us that volume and temperature are directly related, so heating the balloon will cause the volume to increase. Since the mass is not changing, but the volume is increasing, then the ratio, the density, will decrease.
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